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|established_event1 = Dinyatakaké
|established_date1 = [[17 Februari]] [[2008]]
|established_event2 = Diakoni <br />(déning 17 negaranagara)
|established_date2 = [[18 Februari]] [[2008]]<ref>{{cite news|author=[[United States Secretary of State|US Secretary of State]] [[Condoleezza Rice]]|title=U.S. Recognizes Kosovo as Independent State|publisher=[[U.S. Department of State]]|url=http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2008/02/100973.htm|date=[[2008-02-18]]|accessdate=2008-02-18|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20080219202408/http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2008/02/100973.htm|archivedate=2008-02-19}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|title=Britain, France recognise Kosovo|publisher=[[Associated Press]]|url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jvieojQfAH0lC-MNOQEfGdVlX1XAD8USR0K01|date=[[2008-02-18]]|accessdate=2008-02-18}}</ref><ref name="nytimes u.s. france">{{cite news|first=Stephen|last=Castle|title=Kosovo is Recognised by U.S., France and Britain|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/19/world/europe/19kosovo.html?ref=world|date=[[2008-02-18]]|accessdate=2008-02-18}}</ref>
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'''Kosovo''' ([[basa Albania]]: ''Kosova'' utawa ''Kosovë'', [[basa Serbia]]: ''Косово'', alihaksara: Kosovo) kuwi sawijining wilayah kang dumunung ing [[Eropah]] sisih kidul-wétan. Kosovo wewatesan karo [[negaranagara]] [[Serbia]] ing sisih lor, [[Montenegro]] ing sisih kulon, sarta [[Albania]] lan [[Makedonia]] ing sisih kidul. Sadurungé, Kosovo minangka sawijining provinsi otonom ing negaranagara [[Serbia]], ing sangisoré administrasi [[Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa|PBB]], nanging nalika tanggal [[17 Februari]] [[2008]] Kosovo ndhéklarasèkaké kamardikan sacara sapihak.<ref>[http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/02/tgl/17/time/223530/idnews/895394/idkanal/10 Detik.com Kosovo Deklarasikan Kemerdekaan dari Serbia] url diakses 23 Feb 2008. </ref> Déklarasi iki ora disarujuki déning [[Serbia]], nanging didhukung déning negaranagara-negaranagara Kulon. Ibukota Kosovo yakuwi kutha [[Priština]]. Kamardikan Kosovo wis diakoni sacara resmi déning sawetara negaranagara-negaranagara, ing antarané yakuwi [[Albania]], [[Amérika Sarékat]], [[Britania Raya]], [[Prancis]], lan [[Turki]]. Negara kang nulak kamardikan Kosovo antara liya [[Republik Rakyat Cina]], [[Rusia]], lan [[Serbia]]. [[Indonesia]] durung ngakoni kamardikané. ''Departemen Luar Negeri'' Indonesia nyatakaké yèn Indonesia kudu ati-ati ngakoni kamardikan Kosovo.<ref>[http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/02/tgl/18/time/075322/idnews/895430/idkanal/10 Detik Com: Indonesia Belum Akui Kemerdekaan Kosovo] url diakses 23 Feb 2008.</ref>
 
Kosovo dadi papan pasulayan wilayah kang isih lumaku antara pamaréntah Serbia lan pedunungé kang mayoritas dumadi saka etnis [[Albania]]. Wektu madegé negaranagara [[Yugoslavia]], Kosovo dadi provinsi Serbia kanthi status Daerah Otonomi Khusus. Nanging wiwit [[Perang Kosovo]] wis ana ing sangisoré pangawasan [[PBB]] minangka sawijining tlatah protektorat.
'''Kosovo''' ([[basa Albania]]: ''Kosova'' utawa ''Kosovë'', [[basa Serbia]]: ''Косово'', alihaksara: Kosovo) kuwi sawijining wilayah kang dumunung ing [[Eropah]] sisih kidul-wétan. Kosovo wewatesan karo [[negara]] [[Serbia]] ing sisih lor, [[Montenegro]] ing sisih kulon, sarta [[Albania]] lan [[Makedonia]] ing sisih kidul. Sadurungé, Kosovo minangka sawijining provinsi otonom ing negara [[Serbia]], ing sangisoré administrasi [[Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa|PBB]], nanging nalika tanggal [[17 Februari]] [[2008]] Kosovo ndhéklarasèkaké kamardikan sacara sapihak.<ref>[http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/02/tgl/17/time/223530/idnews/895394/idkanal/10 Detik.com Kosovo Deklarasikan Kemerdekaan dari Serbia] url diakses 23 Feb 2008. </ref> Déklarasi iki ora disarujuki déning [[Serbia]], nanging didhukung déning negara-negara Kulon. Ibukota Kosovo yakuwi kutha [[Priština]]. Kamardikan Kosovo wis diakoni sacara resmi déning sawetara negara-negara, ing antarané yakuwi [[Albania]], [[Amérika Sarékat]], [[Britania Raya]], [[Prancis]], lan [[Turki]]. Negara kang nulak kamardikan Kosovo antara liya [[Republik Rakyat Cina]], [[Rusia]], lan [[Serbia]]. [[Indonesia]] durung ngakoni kamardikané. ''Departemen Luar Negeri'' Indonesia nyatakaké yèn Indonesia kudu ati-ati ngakoni kamardikan Kosovo.<ref>[http://www.detiknews.com/index.php/detik.read/tahun/2008/bulan/02/tgl/18/time/075322/idnews/895430/idkanal/10 Detik Com: Indonesia Belum Akui Kemerdekaan Kosovo] url diakses 23 Feb 2008.</ref>
 
Kosovo dadi papan pasulayan wilayah kang isih lumaku antara pamaréntah Serbia lan pedunungé kang mayoritas dumadi saka etnis [[Albania]]. Wektu madegé negara [[Yugoslavia]], Kosovo dadi provinsi Serbia kanthi status Daerah Otonomi Khusus. Nanging wiwit [[Perang Kosovo]] wis ana ing sangisoré pangawasan [[PBB]] minangka sawijining tlatah protektorat.
 
== Sajarah ==
=== Jaman kuna ===
[[Image:Dardania kingdom.png|thumb|left]]
Kosova dikenal ing jaman kuna minangka [[Dardania]]<ref>[http://www.albanianhistory.net/texts/AH1883.html Arthur Evans, “Some Observations on the Present State of Dardania,” R. Elsie ed., ''Albanian History'']</ref> (saka tembung basa Albania ''dardhë'' = pear; tegesé ''Lemah Pear'') tumraping suku Illyrian Dardani.<ref>Noel Malcolm, ''Kosovo: A Short History'' (UP: New York, 2003) 31.</ref><ref>Aleksandar Stipcevic, ''Iliri'', p.30</ref><ref>Mirdita, ''Studime dardane'', pp.7-46</ref><ref>Papazoglu, ''Central Balkan Tribes'', pp.210-69</ref><ref>Katicic, ''Ancient Languages'', pp.179-81</ref><ref>Papazogu, "Dardanska onomastika"</ref> Sumber sajarah nyebutaké sawijining Krajaan Dardania ing abad ka- 4 SM, déné sajarawan Yunani lan Romawi mratélakaké yèn wong kana sregeb, ramah lan duwé kabudayan luhur.<ref name="Bep Jubani 2002">Bep Jubani et al., ''Historia e popullit shqiptar: për shkollat e mesme'' (Libri Shkollor: Prishtinë, 2002) 26-29.</ref> Raja-raja kang wigati yakuwi [[Longarus]], Monunius, lan Bato, kang sering nganakaké paperangan nglawan [[Macedon]] lan sering olèh kamenangan.<ref> name="Bep Jubani et al., ''Historia e popullit shqiptar: për shkollat e mesme'' (Libri Shkollor: Prishtinë, 2002) 26-29.<"/ref> Ana uga cathetan perang karo bangsa Celt. Dardania kuwi misuwur bab sumber tambang emas, lan tulisan kuna nyebutaké yèn Dardani minangka tlatah kang ngasilaké watu aji (permata). Kutha gedhé ing jaman semana kalebu Damastion, Naissus ([[Nis]]), Scupi ([[Skopje]]), lan Ulpiana.<ref>[http://www.shqiperia.com/kat/m/shfaqart/aid/71.html Historia e Shqipërisë, “Mbretëria e Dardanisë: Territori dhe popullsia,” Shqiperia.com]</ref>
 
Dardania dikuwasani déning Romawi ing abad ka-1 SM. lan nyumbang [[Kakaisaran Romawi]] kanthi sawetara kaisar kang misuwur, kalebu [[Konstantin kang Agung]]. Agama Kristen wiwit nyebar nalika [[Nicetas of Remesiana|Niketas Dardani]], nyiptakaké buku kidung pujian Kristen kang wiwitan.
 
Ottoman wiwit nguwasani Kosovo awit sumber mineral kang akèh banget ing Kosovo bisa dadi asèt kang wigati tumrap kakaisaran Ottoman. Kakuwasan Ottoman nggawa jaman anyar. Kanthi werna-werna tekanan kayadéné diskriminasi pajek tumrap panganut agama Katulik Roma, sawetara status Greja Ortodok dilindhungi déning Karajaan Ottoman, banjur nuwuhaké konvèrsi gedhèn-gedhènan déning Kristen Albania pada mlebu [[Islam]].
 
=== Perang Balkan ===
[[Gambar:Balkan Wars Boundaries.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Tapel wates ing Balkan sawisé [[Perang Balkan kapisan|Prang Balkan kapisan]] lan [[Perang Balkan kapindho|kapindho]].]]
 
Ing taun [[1912]], jroning [[Perang Balkan]], tlatah Kosovo dikuwasani déning [[Krajaan Serbia]], sawetara kuwi tlatah [[Metohija]] ([[basa Albania]]: ''Lembah Dukagjini'') dikuwasani déning [[Krajaan Montenegro]]. Banjur kadadéyan èksodhus para pedunung Albania. Bab iki dipratélakaké déning [[Leon Trotsky]], sawijining wartawan saka koran ''Pravda'' wektu jaman semana. Panguwasa Serbia banjur ngrencanakaké bakal nganakaké rekolonisasi tumrap Kosovo.<ref> [http://www.elsie.de/pdf/B2002GatheringClouds.pdf Elsie, R. (ed.) (2002): "''Gathering Clouds. The roots of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. Early twentieth-century documents''"]. Dukagjini Balkan Books, Peja (Kosovo, Serbia). ISBN 9951-05-016-6</ref> Akèh kulawarga Serbia kang pindhanh menyang tlatah Kosovo, kanggo nyiptakaké kaseimbangan demografi antara pedunung Albania lan Serbia. Akèh pedunung Albania ngungsi menyang tkatah pagunungan lan omah-omah wong Albania lan Turki dirusak. Parebutan manèh tlatah Kosovo dianggep dadi panyebab [[Perang Kosovo]] taun [[1389]]. Jroning Konperènsi para Duta ing London taun [[1912]] kang dipimpin déning Sir Edward Grey, mentri jaban rangkah Inggris, Krajaan Serbia lan Montenegro disarujuki duwèni kadhaulatan ing Kosovo.{{Fact|date=February 2008}}
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===Jaman Yugoslavia===
The province was first formed in 1945 as the Autonomous Kosovo-Metohian Area to protect its regional [[Albanians|Albanian]] majority within the [[History of Serbia|People's Republic of Serbia]] as a member of the [[SFRJ|Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia]] under the leadership of the former Partisan leader, [[Josip Broz Tito]], but with no actual autonomy. After Yugoslavia's name change to the [[Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia]] and Serbia's to the [[History of Serbia|Socialist Republic of Serbia]] in [[1953]], Kosovo gained internal autonomy in the 1960s.
 
Tito pursued a policy of weakening Serbia, as he believed that a "Weak Serbia equals a strong Yugoslavia". In the [[1974]] constitution, the [[Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo]]'s government received higher powers, including the highest governmental titles — President and Prime Minister and a seat in the Federal Presidency which made it a ''de facto'' Socialist Republic within the Federation, but remaining a Socialist Autonomous Province within the Socialist Republic of Serbia. (Similar rights were extended to [[Vojvodina]]. In Kosovo [[Serbo-Croatian]], [[Albanian language|Albanian]] and [[Turkish language|Turkish]] were defined as official languages on the provincial level.
 
In the 1970s, an Albanian nationalist movement pursued full recognition as a Republic within the Yugoslav Federation, while extreme elements aimed for full-scale independence.
 
===Perang Kosovo (1996-1999)===
One of the events that contributed to Milošević's rise of power was the ''Gazimestan Speech'', delivered in front of 100,000 Serb citizens at the central celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the [[Battle of Kosovo]], held at [[Gazimestan]] on [[28 June]] [[1989]]. Soon afterwards the autonomy of Kosovo was reduced. After [[Slovenia]]'s secession from Yugoslavia in 1991, Milošević used the seat to attain dominance over the Federal government, outvoting his opponents.{{Fact|date=February 2008}}
 
Albanians organized a separatist movement. State institutions and elections were boycotted and separate Albanian schools and political institutions were established. On [[July 2]], [[1990]] Kosovo Parliament proclaimed Kosovo an independent country, named the [[Republic of Kosova (1990-2000)|Republic of Kosova]], which was only recognized by Albania. In September of that year, the parliament, meeting in secrecy in the town of [[Kačanik]], adopted the ''Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo''. Two years later, in 1992, the parliament organized an unofficial referendum which was observed by international organizations but was not recognized internationally. With an 80% turnout, 98% voted for Kosovo to be independent.{{Fact|date=February 2008}}
 
During the conflict roughly a million ethnic Albanians fled or were forcefully driven from Kosovo, several thousand were killed (the numbers and the ethnic distribution of the casualties are uncertain and highly disputed). An estimated 10,000-12,000 ethnic Albanians and 3,000 Serbs are believed to have been killed during the conflict, and some 3,000 people are still missing.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/781310.stm |title=3,000 missing in Kosovo |author=KiM Info-Service |date=07/06/00}}</ref>
 
===UNMIK===
After the war ended, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1244 that placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration ([[UNMIK]]) and authorized [[Kosovo Force|KFOR]], a NATO-led peacekeeping force. Resolution 1244 also delivered that Kosovo will have autonomy within Federal Republic of Yugoslavia<ref>{{cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=RESOLUTION 1244 (1999) | date=[[1999-06-17]] | publisher=BBC News | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/371562.stm | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-02-19 | language = }}</ref> (today legal successor of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is Republic of Serbia).
 
International negotiations began in 2006 to determine the final status of Kosovo, as envisaged under [[UN Security Council Resolution 1244]]. The [[UN]]-backed talks, lead by UN Special Envoy [[Martti Ahtisaari]], began in February 2006. Whilst progress was made on technical matters, both parties remained diametrically opposed on the question of status itself.<ref>"[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6034567.stm UN frustrated by Kosovo deadlock] ", ''BBC News'', October 9, 2006.</ref>
 
The [[Assembly of Kosovo|Kosovar Assembly]] approved a declaration of independence on [[17 February]] [[2008]].<ref name="bbc_proclaim">"[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7249034.stm Kosovo MPs proclaim independence]", BBC News Online, [[17 February]] [[2008]]</ref>
 
== Proklamasi Kamardikan, 2008 ==
Tanggal [[17 Februari]] [[2008]] Kosovo nyatakaké kamardikan saka [[Serbia]]. Kosovo wis nempuh dalan kang rupak kanggo nggayuh kamardikané. Usaha pisanan ing taun [[1990]] gagal awit diserbu déning Serbia. Tarung kang ora imbang antara Serbia karo [[gerilyawan]] Kosovo utawa KLA iki mujudaké anané tragedi ''pembantaian'' lan pangungsèn gedhèn-gedhènan. NATO kang dipimpin déning [[Amérika Sarékat]] ngusir Serbia kanthi serangan [[udhara]] jroning 78 [[dina]]. Kosovo banjur direksa déning [[Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa|PBB]] lan NATO. Usaha kamardikan Kosovo sing pungkasan iki olèh dhukungan saka mèh saprotelon negaranagara-negaranagara [[Uni Eropa]] lan Amérika Sarékat. Déné negaranagara kang nulak yakuwi Serbia lan Rusia.<ref>Harian [[Jawa Pos]], ''Bangsa Muslim di Eropa Merdeka'', hal.1, ed: [[17 Februari]] [[2008]]</ref>
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==Geografi==
The climate in Kosovo is continental, with warm summers and cold and snowy winters. There are two main plains in Kosovo. The [[Metohija]] basin is located in the western part of the Kosovo, and the Plain of Kosovo occupies the eastern part.
 
Much of Kosovo's terrain is mountainous. The [[Sharri Mountain]]s are located in the south and south-east, bordering [[Republic of Macedonia]]. This is one of the region's most popular tourist and skiing resorts, with [[Brezovica]] and Prevalla as the main tourist centres. Kosovo's mountainous area, including the highest peak [[Gjeravica]], at 2656&nbsp;m above sea level, is located in the south-west, bordering Montenegro and Albania.
 
The [[Kopaonik]] mountains are located in the north. The central region of [[Drenica]], Carraleva and the eastern part of Kosovo, known as [[Gollaku]], are mainly hilly areas. There are several notable rivers and lakes in Kosovo. The main rivers are the [[White Drin]], running towards the [[Adriatic Sea]], with the [[Erenik]] among its [[Tributary|tributaries]]), the [[Sitnica]], the [[Morava]] in the Gollak area, and [[IbriRiver|Ibar]] in the north. The main lakes are Gazivoda (380 million m³) in the north-western part, Radoniq (113 million m³) in the south-west part, Batllava (40 million m³) and Badovci (26 million m³) in the north-east part.
== Kutha ==
[[Gambar:Prishtina maj 2005.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Priština]]]]
 
 
Daftar kutha gedhé ing Kosovo (kanthi data populasi tanggal [[31-2-2003]]):<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.citypopulation.de/Kosovo.html |title=Kosovo |author=City Population}}</ref>
* [[Vushtrri]] (Vučitrn) : 39,642
* [[Podujeva]] : 37,203
 
 
== Cathetan lan referensi ==
 
== Delengen uga ==
* [[Daftar negaranagara]]
* [[Serbia]]
* [[Montenegro]]
 
{{Eropah}}
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[[Kategori:Kosovo| ]]
[[Kategori:Wilayah kang dadi pasulayan]]
[[Kategori:Nagara sing ora diakoni]]
 
 
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