Étiopia: Béda antara owahan

11 bèt wis dibusak ,  3 taun kepungkur
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'''Republik Demokratik Federal Ethiopia''' ('''Ityop'iya''', [[basa Amhara]] <font size="+1">ኢትዮጵያ</font>) iku sawijining [[nagara]] kang dumunung ing [[Afrika]].
 
Etiopia ndarbèni sajarah kang paling jangkep minangka nagara mardika ing bawana kasebut. Minangka nagara paling tuwa ing donya, kawasan Etiopia uga minangka salah siji panggonan peradaban kang paling wiwitan ing donya. Pamaréntahan Etiopia pisanan diwangun udakara taun [[980 SM]] lan nampa agama [[Kristen]] ing abad ka-4 M. Nagara iki cukup unik yèn dibandingaké karo nagara-nagara Afrika liyané amarga ora naté dijajah wektu jamané [[Parebutan Afrika]], lan terus mardika nganti taun [[1936]], nalika pasukan [[Italia]] nguwasani nagara mau. Pasukan-pasukan [[Britania Raya]] lan Ethiopia ngalahaké tentara Italia taun 1941, lan Ethiopia ngéntukaké kadhaulatané manèh sawisé nanda tangani [[Prajanjèn Britania-Ethiopia]] ing Desember 1944. Ethiopia biyèn naté dijenengké [[Abisinia]].
</ref> Working with a grant of approximately 2.3 million Euros the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.
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== Kawasan, zona, lan distrikdhistrik ==
{{utama|Kawasan ing Etiopia|Zona ing Etiopia}}<!--
Before 1996, Ethiopia was divided into 13 [[Provinces of Ethiopia|provinces]], many derived from historical regions. Ethiopia now has a tiered government system consisting of a [[federal government]] overseeing ethnically-based regional states, [[zone]]s, [[district]]s (''[[woreda]]s''), and [[neighborhood]]s (''[[kebele]]'').
[[Image:Ethiopia regions numbered.png|right|thumb|200px|The regions and chartered cities of Ethiopia, numbered alphabetically]]
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Sangang dhaérahlaladan (''region'') lan loro kutha (''chartered'') ya iku:
<table><td><ol>
<li> ''[[Addis Ababa]]''
:''Delengen uga: [[Bantuan asing kanggo Etiopia]]
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In 1972 and 1973, more than 200,000 people died in the Wallo famine. The Emperor Haile Selassie tried to hide the famine but university students revealed the drought to the world.<ref>[http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~tades20f/classweb/ethiopia/intro.htm Wallo Famine during Haile Sellasie reign]</ref> After the 1974 revolution, the economy of Ethiopia was run as [[Socialist economics|Command economy]]. Stronger state controls were implemented, and a large part of the economy was transferred to the public sector, including all agricultural land and urban rental property, and all financial institutions. The bad weather also continued to harm the agriculture sector. However since [[Mengistu Haile Mariam]] regime had bad relations with the West, the government hid the famine in the [[Tigray]] and [[Wallo]] regions causing the death of more than 250,000 Ethiopians. When the government finally allowed UN workers to witness the condition, one of the worst humanitarian crises of the decade was revealed. Together with a flawed relocation project and the Red Terror around 1,500,000 Ethiopians were killed under [[Mengistu Haile Mariam]].<ref>[http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/dictat.html Genocide of 1,500,000 Ethiopians during the DERG regime]</ref> Also six million people were affected by further famine before the EPRDF-led government overthrew the Derg regime.<ref>[http://www.aemfiethiopia.org/history.htm Six million people in famine under Mengistu]</ref> Since then, many economic reforms have been carried out. From mid-1991 onwards, the economy has evolved toward a decentralized, [[market economy|market-oriented economy]], emphasizing individual initiative, which was intended to reverse a decade of economic decline. In 1993 , gradual privatization of business, industry, banking, agriculture, trade, and commerce was underway.
 
Nevertheless, Ethiopia has - almost uniquely in Africa - virtually no private sector business at all.<ref> The Economist, November 3, 2007, Briefing Ethiopia, p. 32 </ref> Many government owned properties during the previous regime have now been transferred to pro-government enterprises in the name of privatization. Telecommunications remain a state monopoly, stifling the development of mobile phones that have become ubiquituous elsewhere in Africa. In financial services, no foreign banks are allowed and it remains almost impossible to find start-up loans for small and medium businesses. Youth unemployment is estimated to be as high as 70%. Because of population growth, just to stand still the country must produce hundreds of thousands of jobs every year.<ref> The Economist, November 3, 2007, Briefing Ethiopia, p. 33 </ref>
 
According to the Ethiopian national census of 1994, the [[Oromo]] are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia at 32.1%. The [[Amhara people|Amhara]] represent 30.2%, while the [[Tigray-Tigrinya people|Tigray]] people are 6.2% of the population. Other ethnic groups are as follows: [[Somali people|Somali]] 6%, [[Gurage]] 4.3%, [[Sidama]] 3.4%, [[Welayta people|Wolayta]] 2%, [[Afar people|Afar]] 2%, [[Hadiya]] 2%, [[Gamo]] 1%.<ref name="bx">Berhanu Abegaz, {{PDFlink|[http://bxabeg.people.wm.edu/Ethiopia.Census%20Portrait.pdf Ethiopia: A Model Nation of Minorities]|51.7&nbsp;[[Kibibyte|KiB]]}} (accessed 6 April 2006)</ref><ref>[http://www.ethiopianembassy.org/population.shtml Embassy of Ethiopia, Washington, DC] (accessed 6 April 2006)</ref>
[[Image:Senay.jpg|right|250px|thumb|View from [[Sheraton HotelHotèl, Addis Ababa|Sheraton HotelHotèl in Addis Ababa]].]]-->
 
==Kasehatan==<!--
Ethiopian distance-runners include [[Derartu Tulu]], [[Abebe Bikila]], [[Mamo Wolde]],[[Miruts Yifter]],[[Addis Abebe]], [[Gebregziabher Gebremariam]], [[Belayneh Densamo]], and [[Werknesh Kidane]]. Derartu Tulu was the first woman from Africa to win an Olympic gold medal, doing so over 10,000 metres at Barcelona. Abebe Bikila, the first Olympic champion representing an African nation, won the Olympic marathon in 1960 and 1964, setting world records both times. He is well-known to this day for winning the 1960 marathon in Rome while running barefoot. Miruts Yifter, the first in a tradition of Ethiopians known for their brilliant finishing speed, won gold at 5,000 and 10,000 metres at the Moscow Olympics. He is the last man to achieve this feat.
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== ArkeologiArkéologi ==<!--
Ethiopia offers a greater richness in archaeological finds and historical buildings than any other country in Sub-Saharan Africa (including Sudan). In April 2005 , the [[Obelisk of Axum]], one of Ethiopia's religious and historical treasures, was returned to Ethiopia by [[Italy]].<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/4458105.stm Obelisk arrives back in Ethiopia] [[BBC]] 19 April 2005</ref> Under the orders of dictator [[Benito Mussolini]], Italian troops seized the obelisk in 1937 and took it to [[Rome]]. Italy agreed to return the obelisk in 1947 in a [[United Nations|UN]] agreement, and it was finally returned in 2005 . As of January 2007 the obelisk has not been erected in Ethiopia. The monument was returned to Ethiopia in three or four large segments to facilitate easier transport. The pieces are so large that the Ethiopian government has been unable to erect it or even devise a way it could feasibly be done. The original site of the obelisk is an unexcavated area that would be damaged by heavy machinery, if that were determined to be an appropriate method of erection.
There have been plenty of significant discoveries including the oldest known, complete fossilized human skeleton, [[Lucy (Australopithecus)|Lucy]]. Other discoveries are still being made.<ref> [http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2006/09/20/lucy_arc.html?category=archaeology&guid=20060920150030] [[Discovery]] Fossil Sheds Light on Ape-Man Species 21 September 2006</ref>
Recently, archeologists uncovered the ruins of the legendary ancient [[Islamic]] kingdom of [[Shoa]], that included evidence of a large urban settlement as well as a large mosque.<ref>Hailu , Tesfaye. (2000). ''History and Culture of the Argobba: Recent Investigations'', In: Annale D'Éthiopie, 16, pp. 195–206, ISBN 2-86877-154-8</ref>
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== Delengen uga ==
348.872

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