Kali Sindu: Béda antara owahan

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'''Kali Sindu''' {[[Urdu]]: {{lang|urd|سندھ}} '''''Sindh'''''; [[Sindhi language|Sindhi]]: {{lang|snd|سنڌو}} '''''Sindhu'''''; [[Punjabi language|Punjabi]] (Shahmukhi: سندھ, Gurmukhi: ਸਿੰਧੂ) '''''{{IAST|Sindhu}}'''''; [[Hindi]] and [[Sanskrit]]: सिन्धु '''''{{IAST|Sindhu}}'''''; [[PersianPèrsin language|PersianPèrsin]]: '''{{lang|fas|Hindu}}'''حندو ; [[Pashto language|Pashto]]: '''{{lang|pus|Abasin}}''' ّآباسن"''Bapaké Kali-kali''"; [[Tibetan language|Tibetan]]: '''{{lang|tib|Sengge Chu}}''' "''Kali Singa''"; [[Chinese language|Chinese]]: {{lang|zh|印度}} '''''Yìndù'''''; [[Greek language|Greek]]: Ινδός '''''Indos'''''} iku kali kang paling dawa lan wigati ing [[Pakistan]]. Kali iki minangka kang paling dawa lan nomer telu paling gedhé ing babagan iliné banyu saben taun, ing anak bawana India (''[[Indian subcontinent]]''). Wong Iggris biasa njenengaké 'India' kanggo kabèh anak bawana, adhedhasar sebutan kali iki. Asal sumber kali iki ing dhataran [[Tibetan Plateau|Tibetan]] ing sacedhaké [[Tlaga Mansarovar]]. Kali Indus mili ngliwati dhistrik [[Ladakh]] ing [[Jammu & Kashmir]] lan laladan lor [[Pakistan]], mili terus sabanjuré mangidul tumuju menyang [[Segara Arabia]] cedhak kutha pelabuhan [[Karachi]]. Dawané kali watara 3,180 kilometer (1,976 mil). Laladan kang digaringaké déning kali iki jembaré luwih saka 1,165,000 km<sup>2</sup> (450,000 mil<sup>2</sup>). Ilèn banyu rata-rata watara 207 km<sup>3</sup>.
 
Miwiti saka panggonan kang dhuwur ing donya kanthi lèlèhan ès ([[glaciers]]), kali iki mènèhi warna tumrap ékosistem kang arupa alas kanthi hawa kang sedhengan, [[dhataran]] lan laladan kang gersang. Bebarengan karo kali [[Kali Chenab|Chenab]], [[Kali Ravi|Ravi]], [[Kali Sutlej|Sutlej]], [[Kali Jhelum|Jhelum]], [[Kali Beas|Beas]] lan kali mati [[Kali Sarasvati|Sarasvati]], kali Sindu maujud dadi delta ''[[Sapta Sindhu]]'' ("Kali Pitu") ing propinsi [[Sindh]] ing Pakistan. Kali iki nduwèni 20 anak kali utama.
 
Kali Sindu nyadiakaké sumber wigati banyu tumrap ékonomi Pakistan - utamané lumbung pangan {''breadbasket'') ya iku propinsi [[Propinsi Punjab (Pakistan)|Punjab]], kang dadi sumber wigati produk tetanèn ing Pakistan, lan [[Sindh]]. Tembung "Punjab" iku kombinasi saka tembung basa [[Basa PersiaPèrsi|PersiaPèrsi]] 'panj' (پنج) ''lima'', lan 'āb' (آب) ''banyu'', kang sacara harfiah dadi ''Lemah utawa tlatah limang kali''. Lima kali kang dadi jenengé Punjab mau ya iku, kali [[Kali Beas|Beas]], [[Kali Jhelum|Jhelum]], [[Kali Chenab|Chenab]], [[Kali Ravi|Ravi]] lan [[Kali Sutlej|Sutlej]]. Kali iki uga ndhukung anané indhustri-industri gedhé lan cepakan banyu ngombé (''potable water'') ing Pakistan.
Sumber utama banyu Kali Sindu ya iku dumunung ing [[Tibet]]; miwiti saka patemon antarané Kali Sengge lan Kali Gar kang mili saka pagunungan Nganglong Kangri lan Gangdise Shan. Sabanjuré Kali Sindu mili tumuju lor-kulon ngliwati [[Ladakh]]-[[Baltistan]] menyang [[Kali Gilgit|Gilgit]], ing kidulé pagunungan [[Karakoram]]. Jeram-jeram Shyok, Shigar lan Gilgit nggawa lèlèhan banyu ès menyang kali utama. Kali iki mbaka sethithik ménggok mangidul, metu saka pebukitan antarané [[Peshawar]] lan [[Rawalpindi]]. Kali Sindu ngliwati jurang-jurang kang gedhé banget, watara 4,500-5,200 meter (15,000-17,000 feet) jeroné, cedhak pagunungan [[Nanga Parbat]]. Sabanjuré mili alon-alon ngliwati Hazara, lan digawé bendungan ing Wadhuk Tarbela. [[Kali Kabul]] nggabung marang kali iki ing cedhak [[Attock]]. Sisa rute kali iki menyang segara ya iku ngliwati dhataran ing tlatah [[Punjab]] lan [[Sind]], lan iliné dadi alon-alon lan ménggak-mènggok. Kali iki nggabung karo [[Kali Panjnad]] ing [[Mithankot]]. Sawisé titik patemon iku, kali iki, sawijining wektu diarani '''Kali Satnad''' (''sat'' = pitu, ''nadi'' = kali), awit kali mau saiki nggawa banyu saka Kali Kabul, Kali Sindu lan lima kali ing Punjab. Ngliwati [[Jamshoro, Pakistan|Jamshoro]], kali iki mungkasi ilèné ing sawijining delta gedhé ing sisih wétané [[Thatta]].
 
The name ''Indus'' is a Latinization of ''Hindu'', in turn the [[Iranian languages|Iranian]] variant of ''Sindhu'', the name of the Indus in the [[Rigveda]]. [[Sanskrit]] ''sindhu'' generically means "river, stream", probably from a root ''sidh'' "to keep off"; ''sindhu'' is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the [[Nadistuti sukta]]. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other [[Rigvedic rivers]] are female, not just grammatically, being imagined as [[river goddess|goddesses]] and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.
 
The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Asian Subcontinent hinterland and its frontier with Afghanistan and [[Iran]]. It has been crossed by the armies of [[Alexander the Great]] - Macedonian forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Indian campaign. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the [[PersianPèrsin empire]] and the [[Kushan empire]]. The [[Muslim]] armies of [[Muhammad bin Qasim]], [[Mahmud of Ghazni]] and [[Babur]] also crossed the river to strike into the inner regions of [[Gujarat]], [[Punjab region|Punjab]] and [[Rajputana]].
 
The word [[Etymology of India|"India"]] is a reference to the Indus River. In ancient times, India referred to the region of modern day Pakistan along the Indus river which traded extensively with the ancient world. It was only after the arrival of the British in the 16th century that name began to be applied to the entire region. Incidently, Pakistan's founding father, Mohammed Ali Jinnah was quite surprised to learn that upon the departure of Britain from the region, that its new neighboor to the east was going to retain the name India as the country's official name.
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