Yunani kuna: Béda antara owahan

31.272 bèt wis dibusak ,  11 taun kepungkur
ngilangi tèks sing ora diterjemah
c (bot Menambah: mn:Эртний Грек)
c (ngilangi tèks sing ora diterjemah)
Peradaban Yunani kuna nduwèni pangaruh wigati marang basa, pulitik, sistem pendhidhikan, filsafat, sains, lan seni, mbangkitaké [[Renaissance]] ing [[Eropah Kulon]] lan kabangkitan sajroning mangsa [[Neoklasik]] ing abad ka-18 lan ka-19 ing [[Eropah]] lan [[Amerika]].
There are no fixed or universally agreed upon dates for the beginning or the end of the ancient Greek period. In common usage it refers to all Greek history before the [[Roman Empire]], but historians use the term more precisely. The Greek-speaking [[Mycenaean Greece|Mycenaean]] civilization that collapsed about [[1150 BC]] is not generally included in the era labelled as Ancient Greece. The [[Minoan civilization|Minoans]] which preceded and profoundly shaped Mycenaean civilization were a distinct Indoeuropean people, probably from Anatolia. <ref>Encyclopedia Britannica, ''Knossos'', 2008 O.Ed. </ref>
In Greek school books, "ancient times" is a period of about 900 years, from the catastrophe of [[Mycenae]] until the conquest of the country by the [[Roman Republic|Romans]], divided into four periods based on styles of art and culture and politics. The historical line starts with [[Greek Dark Ages]] ([[1100 BC|1100]]&ndash;[[800 BC]]). In this period artists use geometrical schemes such as squares, circles and lines to decorate [[amphora]]s and other pottery. The [[Archaic period in Greece|archaic period]] ([[800 BC|800]]&ndash;[[480 BC]]) represents those years when the artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, hieratic poses with the dreamlike "[[archaic smile]]". In the classical period (490&ndash;[[323 BC]]) artists perfected the style that since has been taken as exemplary: "[[Classical Greece|classical]]", such as the [[Parthenon]]. The years following the conquests of [[Alexander the Great|Alexander]] are referred to as the [[Hellenistic Greece|Hellenistic]], (323&ndash;[[146 BC]]), or [[Alexandria]]n period; aspects of Hellenic civilization expanded to Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia and beyond.
[[Image:Ancient Greek cities.PNG|thumb|Cities and towns of ancient Greece.]]
Traditionally, the ancient Greek period was taken to begin with the date of the first recorded [[Olympic Games]] in [[776 BC]], but many historians now extend the term back to about [[1000 BC]]. The traditional date for the end of the ancient Greek period is the death of [[Alexander the Great]] in 323 BC. The following period until the integration of Greece into the [[Roman Republic]] in 146 BC is classed [[Hellenistic Greece|Hellenistic]]. These dates are historians' conventions and some writers treat the ancient Greek civilization as a continuum running until the advent of [[Christianity]] in the [[3rd century]].
Any history of ancient Greece requires a cautionary note on sources. Those Greek historians and political writers whose works have survived, notably [[Herodotus]], [[Thucydides]], [[Xenophon]], [[Demosthenes]], [[Plato]] and [[Aristotle]], were mostly either [[Athens|Athenian]] or pro-Athenian. That is why we know far more about the history and politics of Athens than of any other city, and why we know almost nothing about some cities' histories. These writers, furthermore, concentrate almost wholly on political, military and diplomatic history, and ignore economic and social history. All histories of ancient Greece have to contend with these limits in [[Ancient Greek|their sources]].
{{see|Greeks|Helladic period}}
The Greeks are believed to have migrated southward into the [[Balkan peninsula]] in several waves beginning in the late [[3rd millennium BC]], the last being the [[Dorian invasion]]. [[Proto-Greek]] is assumed to date to some time between the 23rd and 17th centuries BC. The period from [[1600 BC]] to about 1100 BC is known as the [[History of Mycenaean Greece|Mycenaean period]] and not usually included in "Ancient Greece" proper.
The period from 1100 BC to the [[8th century BC]] is a "[[Greek Dark Ages|Dark Age]]" following the [[Bronze Age collapse]] from which no primary texts survive, and only scant archaeological evidence remains. Secondary and tertiary texts such as [[Herodotus]]' [[Histories (Herodotus)|''Histories'']], [[Pausanias (geographer)|Pausanias]]' ''Description of Greece'', [[Diodorus]]' ''Bibliotheca'', and [[Jerome]]'s [[Chronicon (Jerome)|''Chronicon'']] contain brief chronologies and king lists for this period.
===Archaic period===
{{main|Archaic period in Greece}}
====8th century====
In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and the Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the [[Phoenician alphabet]], modifying it to create the [[Greek alphabet]]. From about the 9th century BC written records begin to appear. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbours by the sea or mountain ranges.
====7th century====
The Greek cities were originally monarchies, although many of them were very small and the term "king" (''[[basileus]]'') for their rulers is misleadingly grand. In a country always short of farmland, power rested with a small class of landowners, who formed a warrior [[aristocracy]] fighting frequent petty inter-city wars over land and rapidly ousting the monarchy. About this time the rise of a mercantile class (shown by the introduction of [[currency|coinage]] in about [[680 BC]]) introduced class conflict into the larger cities. From [[650 BC]] onwards, the aristocracies had to fight not to be overthrown and replaced by [[populist]] leaders called [[tyrant]]s (''turannoi''), a word which did not necessarily have the modern meaning of oppressive dictators.
[[Image:EarlyAthenianCoin.jpg|thumb|Early [[Athenian]] coin, 5th century BC. [[British Museum]].]]
In Sparta, the [[landed aristocracy]] retained their power, and the constitution of [[Lycurgus]] (about [[650 BC]]) entrenched their power and gave Sparta a permanent militarist regime under a dual monarchy. Sparta dominated the other cities of the [[Peloponnese]], with the sole exceptions of [[Argos|Argus]] and [[Achaia]].
In Athens, by contrast, the monarchy was abolished in [[683 BC]], and the reforms of [[Solon]] established a moderate system of aristocratic government. The aristocrats were followed by the tyranny of [[Peisistratos (Athens)|Pisistratus]] and his sons, who made the city a great naval and commercial power. When the Pisistratids were overthrown, [[Cleisthenes]] established the world's first [[Athenian democracy|democracy]] ([[500 BC]]), with power being held by an assembly of all the male citizens. But only a minority of the male inhabitants were citizens, because this excluded slaves, freedmen and non-Athenians.
====6th century====
By the [[6th century BC]] several cities had emerged as dominant in Greek affairs: [[Athens]], [[History of Sparta|Sparta]], [[Corinth, Greece|Corinth]], and [[Thebes (Greece)|Thebes]]. Each of them had brought the surrounding rural areas and smaller towns under their control, and Athens and Corinth had become major maritime and mercantile powers as well. Athens and Sparta developed a rivalry that dominated Greek politics for generations.
The Greek world had become a cultural and linguistic area much larger than the geographical area of present Greece. Greek colonies were not politically controlled by their founding cities, although they often retained religious and commercial links with them. The Greeks both at home and abroad organized themselves into independent communities, and the city (''[[polis]]'') became the basic unit of Greek government.
In this period, huge economic development occurred in Greece and also her overseas colonies such as [[Cyme (Aeolis)]], [[Cyrene, Libya|Cyrene]] and [[Alalia]] which experienced a growth in commerce and manufacturing. There also was a large improvement in the living standards of the population. Some studies estimate that the average size of the Greek household, in the period from [[800 BC]] to [[300 BC]], increased five times, which indicates a large increase in the average income of the population.
{{see|Greek colonies|Magna Graecia}}
[[Image:Location greek ancient.png|thumb|250px|Greek influence in the mid 6th century BC.]]
[[Image:AntikeGriechen1.jpg|right|325px|thumb|Greek colonies at about 550 BCE.]]
The [[Classical demography#Ancient Greece and Greek colonies|population grew]] beyond the capacity of its limited [[arable land]] (according to [[Mogens Herman Hansen]], the population of Ancient Greece increased by a factor larger than ten during the period from 800 BC to 400 BC, increasing from a population of 800,000 to a total estimated population of 10 to 13 million).<ref>[ Population of the Greek city-states]</ref> From about [[750 BC]] the Greeks began 250 years of expansion, settling colonies in all directions. To the east, the [[Aegean Sea|Aegean]] coast of [[Anatolia|Asia Minor]] was colonized first, followed by [[Ancient history of Cyprus|Cyprus]] and the coasts of [[Thrace]], the [[Sea of Marmara]] and south coast of the [[Black Sea]]. Eventually Greek colonization reached as far north-east as present day [[Ukraine]] and [[Russia]] ([[Taganrog]]). To the west the coasts of [[Illyria]], [[Sicily]] and southern [[Italy]] were settled, followed by the south coast of France, [[Corsica]], and even northeastern [[Spain]]. Greek colonies were also founded in [[Ancient Egypt|Egypt]] and [[Ancient Libya|Libya]]. Modern [[Syracuse, Italy|Syracuse]], [[Naples]], [[Marseille]] and [[Istanbul]] had their beginnings as the Greek colonies Syracusae ''(Συρακούσαι)'', Neapolis ''(Νεάπολις)'', Massalia ''(Μασσαλία)'' and [[Byzantium|Byzantion]] ''(Βυζάντιον)''.
[[Image:Taormina Theater2.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Ruins of Greek Theater in the colony at [[Taormina]] in present day Italy]]
===Classical Greece===
{{main|Classical Greece}}
The classical period of [[Ancient Greece]], corresponds to most of the [[5th century BC|5th]] and [[4th century BC|4th centuries B.C.]] (i.e. from the fall of the [[Athenian tyranny]] in [[510 BC]] to the death of [[Alexander the Great]] in [[323 BC]]).
====5th century====
In 510, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow their king, the tyrant [[Hippias (son of Pisistratus)|Hippias]], son of [[Peisistratos (Athens)|Peisistratos]]. [[Cleomenes I]], king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy conducted by [[Isagoras]].
[[Image:Map athenian empire 431 BC-fr.svg|thumb|300px|Delian League ("Athenian Empire"), right before the [[Peloponnesian War]] in [[431 BC]].]]
The [[Greco-Persian Wars]] (499-449 BC), concluded by the [[Peace of Callias]] resulted in the dominant position of [[Athens]] in the [[Delian League]], which led to conflict with [[Sparta]] and the [[Peloponnesian League]], resulting in the [[Peloponnesian War]] (431-404 BC).
At [[Battle of Mantinea (418 BC)|Mantinea]] Sparta defeated the combined armies of Athens and her allies. The resumption of fighting brought the war party, led by [[Alcibiades]], back to power in Athens. In 415 BC Alcibiades persuaded the Athenian Assembly to launch a major [[Sicilian Expedition|expedition]] against [[Syracuse, Italy|Syracuse]], a Peloponnesian ally in [[Sicily]], resulting in a complete disaster.
Sparta now challenged Athenian naval supremacy, and had found a brilliant military leader in [[Lysander]], who decisively defeated Athens at [[battle of Aegospotami|Aegospotami]] (405 BC). The loss of her fleet threatened Athens with bankruptcy. In 404 BC Athens sued for peace, and Sparta dictated a predictably stern settlement: Athens lost her city walls, her fleet, and all of her overseas possessions. Lysander abolished the democracy and appointed a council of thirty to govern Athens in its place.
====4th century====
Greece entered the 4th century under [[Spartan hegemony]]. But by [[395 BC]] the Spartan rulers removed Lysander from office, and Sparta lost her naval supremacy. [[Athens]], [[Argos]], [[Thebes, Greece|Thebes]], and [[Corinth]], the latter two formerly Spartan allies, challenged Spartan dominance in the [[Corinthian War]], which ended inconclusively in [[387 BC]].
Then the Theban generals [[Epaminondas]] and [[Pelopidas]] won a decisive victory at [[Battle of Leuctra|Leuctra]] ([[371 BC]]). The result of this battle was the end of Spartan supremacy and the establishment of [[Theban hegemony]]. Sparta remained an important power and some cities continued to turn against her. The confederal framework was artificial, for a confederacy mustered cities that could never agree. This was the case with the cities of [[Tegea]] and [[Mantinea]] which reallied in the Arcardian confederacy. The Mantineans received the support of the Athenians and the Tegeans that of the Thebans. The Thebans prevailed, but this triumph was short-lived, for Epaminondas died in the battle. In the end, the Thebans renounced their policy of intervention in the Peloponnesus. [[Xenophon]] thus ended his history of the Greek world in 362 BC.
Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of [[Macedon]] in [[346 BC]].
Under Philip II, ([[359 BC|359]]&ndash;[[336 BC]]), Macedon expanded into the territory of the [[Paionians]], [[Thracians]], and [[Illyrians]]. Macedon became more politically involved with the south-central city-states of Greece, but it also retained more archaic features like the palace-culture, first at Aegae (modern Vergina) then at [[Pella]], resembling [[Mycenaean Greece|Mycenaean]] culture more than the classic city-states.
Philip's son [[Alexander the Great]] ([[356 BC|356]]&ndash;[[323 BC]]) managed to briefly extend Macedonian power not only over the central Greek city-states, but also to the [[Persian empire]], including [[Egypt]] and lands as far east as present-day [[Pakistan]]. The classical period conventionally ends at the death of Alexander in 323 BC and the fragmentation of his empire, divided among the [[Diadochi]].
===Hellenistic Greece===
{{main|Hellenistic Greece}}
The Hellenistic period of [[Greece|Greek]] lasts from 323 BC to the annexation of the Greek [[Balkans|peninsula]] and [[List of islands of Greece|islands]] by [[Roman Republic|Rome]] in [[146 BC]]. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which remained essentially unchanged until the advent of [[Christianity]], it did mark the end of Greek political independence.
During the Hellenistic period the importance of "Greece proper" (that is, the territory of modern Greece) within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply. The great centers of Hellenistic culture were [[Alexandria]] and [[Antioch]], capitals of [[Ptolemaic Egypt]] and [[Seleucid dynasty|Seleucid Syria]] respectively. See [[Hellenistic civilization]] for the history of Greek culture outside of Greece in this period.
The conquests of Alexander had a number of consequences for the Greek city-states. It greatly widened the horizons of the Greeks, and led to a steady emigration, particularly of the young and ambitious, to the new Greek empires in the east. Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch and the many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as what are now [[Afghanistan]] and [[Pakistan]], where the [[Greco-Bactrian Kingdom]] and the [[Indo-Greek Kingdom]] survived until the end of the [[1st century BC]].
====3rd century====
The [[Seleucid Empire]] disintegrated gradually, torn apart by the wars of the [[Diadochi]] 323-285 BC, by 247 BC giving way to [[Parthia]].
[[Antigonus II]] died in [[239 BC]]. His death saw another revolt of the city-states of the [[Achaean League]], whose dominant figure was [[Aratus of Sicyon|Aratus]] of [[Sicyon]]. Antigonus's son [[Demetrius II of Macedon|Demetrius II]] died in [[229 BC]], leaving a child (Philip V) as king, with the general [[Antigonus Doson]] as regent. The Achaeans, while nominally subject to Ptolemy, were in effect independent, and controlled most of southern Greece. Athens remained aloof from this conflict by common consent.
Sparta remained hostile to the Achaeans, and in [[227 BC]] Sparta's king [[Cleomenes III]] invaded Achaea and seized control of the League. Aratus preferred distant Macedon to nearby Sparta, and allied himself with Doson, who in [[222 BC]] defeated the Spartans and annexed their city &ndash; the first time Sparta had ever been occupied by a foreign power.
In [[215 BC]], Philip V formed an alliance with Rome's enemy [[Carthage]], which drew Rome directly into Greek affairs for the first time. Rome promptly lured the Achaean cities away from their nominal loyalty to Philip, and formed alliances with Rhodes and Pergamum, now the strongest power in [[Anatolia|Asia Minor]]. The [[First Macedonian War]] broke out in [[212 BC]], and ended inconclusively in [[205 BC]], but Macedon was now marked as an enemy of Rome. Rome's ally Rhodes gained control of the Aegean islands.
====2nd century====
In [[202 BC]] Rome defeated Carthage,and was free to turn her attention eastwards, urged on by her Greek allies, Rhodes and Pergamum. In [[198 BC|198]] the [[Second Macedonian War]] broke out for obscure reasons, but basically because Rome saw Macedon as a potential ally of the Seleucids, the greatest power in the east. Philip's allies in Greece deserted him and in [[197 BC]] he was decisively defeated at the [[Battle of Cynoscephalae|Cynoscephalae]] by the Roman proconsul [[Titus Quinctius Flamininus]].
In [[192 BC]] war broke out between Rome and the Seleucid ruler [[Antiochus III]], who was defeated at [[Thermopylae]] in [[191 BC]]. During the course of this war Roman troops crossed into Asia for the first time, where they defeated Antiochus again at [[Magnesia on the Sipylum]] ([[190 BC]]). Greece now lay across Rome's line of communications with the east, and Roman troops became a permanent presence. The Peace of Apamaea ([[188 BC]]) left Rome in a dominant position throughout Greece.
When Philip V died in [[179 BC]] he was succeeded by his son [[Perseus of Macedon|Perseus]], who like all the Macedonian kings dreamed of uniting the Greeks under Macedonian rule. Macedon was now too weak to achieve this objective, but Rome's ally [[Eumenes II]] of [[Pergamum]] persuaded Rome that Perseus was a threat to Rome's position.
In [[168 BC]] the Romans sent [[Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus|Lucius Aemilius Paullus]] to Greece, and at [[Battle of Pydna|Pydna]] the Macedonians were crushingly defeated. Perseus was captured and taken to Rome, the Macedonian kingdom was broken up into four smaller states. Under the leadership of an adventurer called [[Andriscus]], Macedon rebelled against Roman rule in [[149 BC]]: as a result it was directly annexed the following year and became a [[Roman province]], the first of the Greek states to suffer this fate. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League, the last stronghold of Greek independence, be dissolved. The Achaeans refused and declared war on Rome. The Roman consul [[Lucius Mummius]] advanced from Macedonia and defeated the Greeks at [[Corinth]], which was razed to the ground. In [[146 BC]] the Greek peninsula, though not the islands, became a Roman protectorate. Roman taxes were imposed, except in Athens and Sparta, and all the cities had to accept rule by Rome's local allies. In [[133 BC]] the last king of Pergamum died and left his kingdom to Rome: this brought most of the Aegean peninsula under direct Roman rule as part of the province of Asia.
===Roman Greece===
{{main|Roman Greece}}
{{see|Roman and Byzantine Greece}}
Roman Greece is the period of [[History of Greece|Greek history]] (of Greece proper as opposed to the other centers of Hellenism in the Roman world) following the Roman victory over the Corinthians at the [[Battle of Corinth (146 BC)|Battle of Corinth]] in 146 BC until the reestablishment of the city of [[Byzantium]] and the naming of the city by the Emperor [[Constantine I|Constantine]] as the capital of the [[Roman Empire]] (as ''Nova Roma'', later [[Constantinople]]) in 330.
During the 2nd and 3rd centuries, Greece was divided into provinces including [[Achaea (Roman province)|Achaea]], [[Macedonia (Roman province)|Macedonia]], [[Epirus (region)|Epirus]], [[Thrace]] and [[Moesia]]. During the reign of [[Diocletian]] in the late 3rd century, Moesia was organized as a [[diocese]], and was ruled by [[Galerius]]. Under Constantine, Greece was part of the [[prefect]]ures of Macedonia and Thrace. [[Theodosius I]] divided the prefecture of Macedonia into the provinces of [[Crete|Creta]], Achaea, [[Thessaly|Thessalia]], [[Epirus Vetus]], [[Epirus Nova]], and Macedonia. The [[Aegean islands]] formed the province of Insulae in the prefecture of Asiana.
Only free, land owning, native-born men could be citizens entitled to the full protection of the law in a [[city-state]] (later [[Pericles]] introduced exceptions to the native-born restriction). In most city-states, unlike [[Ancient Rome|Rome]], social prominence did not allow special rights. For example, being born in a certain family generally brought no special privileges. Sometimes families controlled public religious functions, but this ordinarily did not give any extra power in the government. In [[Athens]], the population was divided into four social classes based on wealth. People could change classes if they made more money. In [[Sparta]], all male citizens were given the title of equal if they finished their education. However, Spartan kings, who served as the city-state's dual military and religious leaders, came from two families. [[Slavery in ancient Greece|Slaves]] had no power or status. They had the right to have a family and own property, however they had no political rights. By [[600 BC]] [[chattel slavery]] had spread in [[Greece]]. By the [[5th century BC]] slaves made up one-third of the total population in some city-states. Slaves outside of Sparta almost never revolted because they were made up of too many nationalities and were too scattered to organize.
Most families owned slaves as household servants and labourers, and even poor families might have owned a few slaves. Owners were not allowed to beat or kill their slaves. Owners often promised to free slaves in the future to encourage slaves to work hard. Unlike in Rome, slaves who were freed did not become citizens. Instead, they were mixed into the population of ''[[metics]]'', which included people from foreign countries or other city-states who were officially allowed to live in the state.
City-states legally owned slaves. These public slaves had a larger measure of independence than slaves owned by families, living on their own and performing specialized tasks. In Athens, public slaves were trained to look out for counterfeit coinage, while temple slaves acted as servants of the temple's deity.
Sparta had a special type of slaves called ''[[helots]]''. Helots were Greek war captives owned by the state and assigned to families where they were forced to stay. Helots raised food and did household chores so that women could concentrate on raising strong children while men could devote their time to training as [[hoplite]]s. Their masters treated them harshly and helots often revolted.
For most of Greek history, education was private, except in Sparta. During the [[Hellenistic period]], some city-states established public schools. Only wealthy families could afford a teacher. Boys learned how to read, write and quote literature. They also learned to sing and play one musical instrument and were trained as athletes for military service. They studied not for a job, but to become an effective citizen. Girls also learned to read, write and do simple [[arithmetic]] so they could manage the household. They almost never received education after childhood.
Boys went to school at the age of seven, or went to the barracks, if they lived in [[Sparta]]. The three types of teachings were: grammatistes for arithmetic, kitharistes for music and dancing, and Paedotribae for sports.
Boys from wealthy families attending the private school lessons were taken care by a ''paidagogos'', a household slave selected for this task who accompanied the boy during the day. Classes were held in teachers' private houses and included reading, writing, mathematics, singing, and playing of the lyre and flute. When the boy became 12 years old the schooling started to include sports as wrestling, running, and throwing discus and javelin. In Athens some older youths attended academy for the finer disciplines such as culture, sciences, music, and the arts. The schooling ended at the age of 18, followed by military training in the army usually for one or two years.<ref>Angus Konstam: "Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece", pp. 94-95. Thalamus publishing, UK, 2003, ISBN 1-904668-16-x</ref>
A small number of boys continued their education after childhood, as in the Spartan [[agoge]]. A crucial part of a wealthy teenager's education was a mentorship with an elder, which in few places and times may have included [[Pederasty in ancient Greece|pederastic]] love. The teenager learned by watching his mentor talking about politics in the ''agora'', helping him perform his public duties, exercising with him in the gymnasium and attending symposia with him. The richest students continued their education by studying with famous teachers. Some of Athens' greatest such schools included the [[Lyceum]] and the [[Academy]]. The education system of the wealthy ancient Greeks is also called [[Paideia]].
===Ancient Greek Assembly===
The assembly of ancient [[Greece]] is one of the first known forms of [[Democracy|Democratic]] government. Ecclesia or Ekklesia means “Greek assembly of a city state.” Its origins are from the Homeric Agora meaning “the meeting of people".<ref name=Ecclesia>{{cite web |title=Ecclesia, or Ekklesia (ancient Greek assembly) |publisher=Encyclopedia Britannica Online |date=2007 |work=Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. |accessdate=2007-11-14 |url=}}</ref> The first known assembly was held as early as the reign of Draco in 621 B.C.<ref name=Ecclesia/>
The assembly was held in the [[Pnyx]] (which was on a hill west of the [[Acropolis of Athens|Acropolis]]). This meeting place was said to hold at most 6,000 Athenian men based on calculations done with the average size of an [[Athens|Athenian]] male.<ref name=jstor2>{{cite web |author=Saxonhouse, Arlene W. |title=Athenian Democracy? Modern Mythmakers and Ancient Theorists |pubisher=JSTOR: PS: Political Science and Politics: Vol.26,No.3,Pg. 486. |date=1993 |accessdate=2007-11-14 |url=}}</ref> Assembly members meet four times every Prytany (about once a week).<ref name=jstor/> At each meeting of the assembly certain topics were discussed and voted on. The assembly would also gather in cases of emergency and in cases of trials of law in which the assembly became a jury.<ref name=jstor>{{cite web |title=How Often Did the Athenian Assembly Meet? |publisher=JSTOR: Classical Quarterly: New Series: Vol.36, No.2, Pg. 363. |date=2007 |accessdate=2007-11-14 |url=}}</ref>
Votes were taken by a tally of hands raised. After being tallied the majority decision ruled and carried. Although it was the first form of Democracy the only people allowed to vote in the assembly were free-born men. During the reign of Pericles (around the mid 400's B.C.) the assembly was given the sole power to veto or approve any and all matters concerning the Greek state.<ref>{{cite web |author=Hooker, Richard |date=1999-06-06 |title=Ancient Greece: the Age of Pericles: the Athenian Empire |accessdate=2007-11-14 |url=}}</ref>
At its economic height, in the 5th and 4th centuries BC, ancient Greece was the most advanced economy in the world. According to some economic historians, it was one of the most advanced preindustrial economies. This is demonstrated by the average daily wage of the Greek worker which was, in terms of wheat, about 12 kg. This was more than 3 times the average daily wage of an Egyptian worker during the Roman period, about 3.75 kg.<ref>Real Slave prices and the relative cost of slave labour in the Greco-Roman world</ref>
{{main|Ancient Greek philosophy}}
Greek philosophy focused on the role of [[reason]] and [[inquiry]]. In many ways, it had an important influence on modern [[philosophy]], as well as modern [[science]]. Clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] and [[Hellenistic philosophy|Hellenistic philosophers]], to medieval [[Early Islamic philosophy|Muslim philosophers]] and [[Islamic science|scientists]], to the [[Europe]]an [[Renaissance]] and [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]], to the secular [[science]]s of the modern day.
Neither reason nor inquiry began with the Greeks. Defining the difference between the Greek quest for knowledge and the quests of the elder [[civilization]]s, such as the [[ancient Egypt]]ians and [[Babylonia]]ns, has long been a topic of study by theorists of civilization.
{{main|Ancient Greek literature|Homer|Greek tragedy|Greek comedy|Theatre of ancient Greece}}
[[Alfred North Whitehead]] once claimed that all of philosophy is but a footnote to [[Plato]]. To suggest that all of [[Western literature]] is no more than a footnote to the writings of ancient Greece is an exaggeration, but it is nevertheless true that the [[Greek philosophy|Greek]] world of thought was so far-ranging that there is scarcely an idea discussed today not already debated by the ancient writers.
{{main|Ancient Greek geography|Greek astronomy|Greek mathematics|Medicine in ancient Greece|Histories (Herodotus)|Aristotle}}
[[Image:Nike libation Apollo Louvre Ma965.jpg|thumb|260px|[[Apollo]] and [[Nike (mythology)|Nike]] in marble, a Roman copy from the 1 st century CE of the original [[Hellenistic civilization|hellenistic work]]]]
{{main|Art in ancient Greece}}
The art of ancient Greece has exercised a huge influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present.
===Religion and mythology===
{{main|Ancient Greek religion|Hellenistic religion|Greek mythology}}
Greek mythology consists of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their [[Family tree of the Greek gods|gods]] and [[hero]]es, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their religious practices. The main Greek gods were the twelve Olympians, [[Zeus]], his wife [[Hera]], [[Poseidon]], [[Ares]], [[Hermes]], [[Hephaestus]], [[Aphrodite]], [[Athena]], [[Apollo]], [[Artemis]], [[Demeter]], and [[Hestia]]. Other important deities included [[Hebe (mythology)|Hebe]], [[Helios]], [[Hades]], [[Dionysus]], [[Persephone]] and [[Heracles]] (a [[demi-god]]). Zeus' parents were [[Kronos]] and [[Rhea]] who also were the parents of Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Hestia, and Demeter.
==Delengen uga==
*[[Seni Yunani kuna]]