Estrogen: Béda antara owahan

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(Kaca énggal: thumb|[[Estriol]] thumb|[[Estradiol]] thumb|[[Estron]] '''Estrogen''' (-utawa '''oestro...)
 
[[Gambar:Estrone structure.svg|thumb|[[Estron]]]]
'''Estrogen''' (-utawa '''oestrogen''') -yaiku sekelompok senyawa [[steroid]] kang fungsine utamane minangka [[hormon]] [[seks]] [[wanita]]. Senajan turah isa iku ing jero awak [[pria]] utawa wanita, kandungane luwih duwur ing awak wanita umur subur. Hormon iki nyebapake perkembangan lan nahanake tanda-tanda [[kelamin]] [[Tanda kelamin sekunder|sekunder]] ing wanita, kaya [[susu]], lan uga melu sajrone kekandelan [[endometrium]] utawa sajrone pengaturan [[siklus haid]]. nalika wektu [[menopause]], estrogen mulai kurang sahingga isa nyebapake pira-pira efek, ing antarane ''hot flash'', kanti kringet nalika wektu [[turu]], lan was-was kang ora wajar.
 
telu jenis estrogen utama kang turah sacara alami sajrone awak wanita yaiku [[estradiol]], [[estriol]], lan [[estron]]. Awit ''[[menarche]]'' nganti [[menopause]], estrogen utama -yaiku [[estradiol|17β-estradiol]]. Ing jero awak, katelu jenis estrogen kasebut digawe saka [[androgen]] kanti bantuan [[enzim]]. Estradiol digawe saka [[testosteron]], wondene estron digawe saka [[androstenadion]]. Estron kanti sifat luwih lemah ketimbang estradiol, lan ing wanita pasca menopause estron ditemokake luwih akeh ketimbang estradiol. Pira-pira zat alami utawa gaweyan wis ditemokake duweni aktivitas kang sifate pada estrogen<ref>{{cite journal | author = Fang H, Tong W, Shi L, Blair R, Perkins R, Branham W, Hass B, Xie Q, Dial S, Moland C, Sheehan D | title = Structure-activity relationships for a large diverse set of natural, synthetic, and environmental estrogens. | journal = Chem Res Toxicol | volume = 14 | issue = 3 | pages = 280-94 | year = 2001 | id = PMID 11258977}}</ref>. Zat gaweyan kang sifate kaya estrogen disebut ''xenoestrogen'', wondene bahan alami saka wit-witan kang duweni aktivitas kaya estrogen disebut ''fitoestrogen''.
 
Estrogen digunakake minangka bahan pil [[kontrasepsi]] lan juga terapi kanggo wanita [[menopause]].
 
Terpapar hormon estrogen kanti ura aturan lan kumulatif, dianggep isa ningkatke risiko kena [[kanker payudara]],<ref>{{en}}{{cite web
| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18637481
| title = Mechanisms of hormone carcinogenesis: evolution of views, role of mitochondria
| work = Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine; Chen JQ, Brown TR, Yager JD.
}}(Kaunduh 30/1/13)</ref> lan [[kanker endometrium]].<ref>{{en}}{{cite web
| url = http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/17/3/563.full
| title = UGT1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms, Endogenous Estrogen Exposure, Soy Food Intake, and Endometrial Cancer Risk
| work = Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, Department of Medicine and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, Tennessee and Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiao Tong University; Sandra L. Deming, Wei Zheng, Wang-Hong Xu, Qiuyin Cai, Zhixian Ruan, Yong-Bing Xiang dan Xiao-Ou Shu
}}(Kaunduh 30/1/13)</ref> Mekanisme klasik estrogen bakal duweni pengaruh tumprap laju dalan [[mitosis]] lan [[apoptosis]] lan ngejawantah dadi risiko kanker payudara kanti ngaruhi pertumbuhan [[sel epitelial|jaringan epitelial]]. Laju [[proliferasi]] [[sel (biologi)|sel]] kang cepet banget bakal gawe sel dadi rentan tumprap kesalahan [[gen]]etika nalika proses [[replikasi DNA]] dening senyawa [[spesi oksigen reaktif]] kang teraktivasi dening [[metabolit]] estrogen. Senajan mengkono, fitoestrogen isa mudunake risiko kasebut kanti kapasitase berkompetisi karo estrogen ing pencerape, sahingga menstimulasi produksi [[globulin]] pengusung hormon seks lan ngalonake aktvitas enzim ing lintasa sintesis estrogen.
 
Nalika ngalami [[katabolisme]], estrogen bakal mbentuk pira-pira senyawa [[intermediat]] kang disebut estrogen-[[katekol]] lewati 2 [[lintasan metabolisme|lintasan]] ''2-hydroxylation'' karo enzim [[CYP1A1]] lan ''4-hydroxylation'' karo enzim [[CYP1B1]],<ref>{{en}}{{cite web
| url = http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/16/3/481.full
| title = Ovarian Cancer Risk and Polymorphisms Involved in Estrogen Catabolism
| work = Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Community Medicine; and Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Washington; Sarah K. Holt, Mary Anne Rossing, Kathleen E. Malone, Stephen M. Schwartz, Noel S. Weiss and Chu Chen
}}(Kaunduh 30/1/13)</ref> kanggo dieliminasi kanti pira-pira proses kayata [[metilasi]] kanti enzim ''[[catechol-o-methyltransferase]]'', [[hidroksilasi]], [[oksidasi]], [[detoksifikasi]], [[sulfinasi]] kanti enzim [[sulfotransferase]], lan [[glusuronidasi]] kanti enzim [[glusuronosiltransferase|UGT]]. ing umumne senyawa estrogen-katekol duweni [[wektu paruh]] kang cendek amerga langsung ''termetilasi'' dadi ''2-methoxyestradiol'' lan ''4-methoxyestradiol''. Senyawa estrogen-katekol isa duwen sifat [[tumorigenik]] utawa anti-tumorigenik, misale ''[[4-hydroxyestradiol]]'' duweni sifat [[hormon]]al kanti ngaktivasi pencerap estrogen, lan nginduksi [[adenokarsinoma]] ing [[endometrium]]. Wondene ''[[2-methyoxyestradiol]]'' duweni aktivitas antitumorigenik kanti ngalonake [[proliferasi]] lan [[angiogenesis]] ing [[sel (biologi)|sel]] [[tumor]].
 
 
 
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