Influenza: Béda antara owahan

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== Epidemiologi ==
=== Variasi mangsan ===
Influenza nggayuh prévalènsi puncak nalika [[mangsa adhem]], lan amarga [[wilahan bumi lor]] lan [[wilahan bumi kidul|kidul]] ngalami mangsa adhem ing wektu kang béda saben tauné, ana loro mangsa flu saben tauné. Mula WHO (dibantu déning National Influenza Centers) gawé rékomèndhasi kanggo loro formulasi vaksin saben tauné; siji kanggo wilahan bumi lor, lan siji kanggo kidul.<ref name=WHOrecommendation>[http://web.archive.org/20060528111237/www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/2007northreport.pdf Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2006–2007 influenza season] WHO report 2006-02-14. Diaksès 19 Oktober 2006.</ref>
 
Wis suwé dadi pitakonan kenapa wabah flu dumadi sacara mangsan, ora dumadi sacara mangsan sadawané taun. Siji panjelasan sing mungkin yaiku amarga wong ana jroning ruwangan luwih asring ing mangsa adhem, wong-wong mau ana jroning kontak cerak luwih asring, lan babagan kasebut ningkataké panularan saka wong-menyang-wong. Paningkatan tingkat lelaku amarga prèinan mangsa adhem ing wilahan bumi bagéyan lor mungkin uga nyekel peranan. <ref name="NPR2003-12-17">[http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1551913 Weather and the Flu Season] NPR Day to Day, 17 December 2003. Diaksès 19 Oktober 2006</ref> Faktor liyané yaiku suhu sing adhem nyebabaké udhara luwih adhem, sing bisa nggaringaké mukus/lendhir, nyegah awak kanggo ngusir partikel virus sacara èfèktif. Virus uga tahan luwih suwé ing lumahan ing suhu sing luwih adhem lan transmisi aerosol saka virus paling dhuwur ing lingkungan sing adhem (kurang saka 5° C) kanthi kalembaban rélatif sing asor.<ref>{{cite journal | title = Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature | last1 = Lowen | first1 = AC | last2 = Mubareka | first2 = S | last3 = Steel | first3 = J | last4 = Palese | first4 = P | authorlink4 = Peter Palese | journal = PLoS Pathogens | volume = 3 | issue = 10 | page = e151 | url = http://www.plospathogens.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.0030151&representation=PDF | format = PDF | doi = 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030151 | pmc = 2034399 | pmid = 17953482 | year = 2007 | month = October }}</ref> Kalembaban udhara sing asor ing mangsa adhem katoné arupa panyebab utama saka transmisi influenza mangsan ing iklim sedheng.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Shaman J, Kohn M |title=Absolute humidity modulates influenza survival, transmission, and seasonality |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=106 |issue=9 |pages=3243–8 |year=2009 |month=March |pmid=19204283 |pmc=2651255 |doi=10.1073/pnas.0806852106}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Shaman J, Pitzer VE, Viboud C, Grenfell BT, Lipsitch M |editor1-last=Ferguson |editor1-first=Neil M. |title=Absolute humidity and the seasonal onset of influenza in the continental United States |journal=PLoS Biol. |volume=8 |issue=2 |pages=e1000316 |year=2010 |month=February |pmid=20186267 |pmc=2826374 |doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000316}}</ref>
 
Nanging, owah-owahan mangsan ing tingkat infèksi uga dumadi ing wilayah [[tropis]], lan ing sapérangan negara puncak infèksi katon utamané ing mangsa udan.<ref>{{cite journal | doi = 10.1016/S1526-0542(03)00024-1 | last1 = Shek | first1 = LP | last2 = Lee | first2 = BW | title = Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory tract virus infections in the tropics. | journal = Paediatric respiratory reviews | volume = 4 | issue = 2 | pages = 105–11 | year = 2003 | pmid = 12758047 }}</ref> Owah-owahan mangsan jroning tingkat kontak sing magepokan karo mangsa sekolah (semèster) arupa faktor utama jroning penyakit anak liyané kayadéné [[campak]] lan [[pertussis]], mungkin uga nyekel peranan jroning kombinasi panyakit flu. Kombinasi saka èfèk mangsan cilik iki bisa digedhèkaké kanthi résonansi dinamis siklus endogen panyakit.<ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Dushoff | first1 = J | last2 = Plotkin | first2 = JB | last3 = Levin | first3 = SA | last4 = Earn | first4 = DJ | title = Dynamical resonance can account for seasonality of influenza epidemics. | journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | volume = 101 | issue = 48 | pages = 16915–6 | year = 2004 | pmid = 15557003 | pmc = 534740 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.0407293101 }}</ref> H5N1 nuduhaké pola mangsan ing [[manungsa]] lan unggas.<ref name=WHOH5N1data>[http://web.archive.org/20040218103733/www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/en/ WHO Confirmed Human Cases of H5N1] Data published by WHO Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR). Diaksès 24 Oktober 2006</ref>
 
Sawijining hipotèsis alternatif sing njelasaké pola mangsan ing infèksi influenza yaiku èfèk kadhar [[vitamin D]] tumrap kakebalan marang virus.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Cannell |first=J |coauthors=Vieth R, Umhau J, Holick M, Grant W, Madronich S, Garland C, Giovannucci E |title=Epidemic influenza and vitamin D |journal=Epidemiol Infect |volume=134 |issue=6 |pages=1129–40 |year=2006 |pmid=16959053 |doi=10.1017/S0950268806007175 |pmc=2870528 |authorlink=John Cannell}}</ref> Pendhapat iki pisanan diajokaké déning [[Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson]] nalika taun 1965.<ref>{{cite journal |last=HOPE-SIMPSON |first=R |title=The nature of herpes zoster: a long-term study and a new hypothesis |journal=Proc R Soc Med |volume=58 |issue=|pages=9–20 |year=1965|pmid=14267505 |pmc=1898279}}</ref> Dhèwèké ngajokaké yèn panyebab epidemi influenza ing mangsa adhem mungkin gegandhèngan karo fluktuasi mangsan vitamin D, sing timbul ing [[kulit]] ing sangisoré pangaruh [[radhiasi UV]] [[srengéngé]] (utawa radhiasi artifisial). Iki bisa njelasaké kenapa influenza dumadi utamané nalika [[mangsa adhem]] lan ing [[mangsa udan]] ing dhaérah tropis, nalika wong akèh ana jroning ruwangan, adoh saka sinar srengéngé, lan kadhar vitamin D-né ngalami pamudhunan.
 
{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
|+ [[Pandemi flu]] sing wis dikawruhi<ref name=Hilleman>{{cite journal |last=Hilleman |first=M |title=Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control |journal=Vaccine |volume=20 |issue=25–26 |pages=3068–87 |year=2002 |month=August 19 |pmid=12163258 |doi=10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00254-2}}</ref><ref name=Potter/><ref name="TenThings">{{cite web |url=http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/pandemic10things/en/index.html |publisher=World Health Organization |date=2005-10-14 |title=Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza|accessdate=2009-09-26|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/20051016015026/www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/pandemic10things/en/index.html|archivedate=2005-10-16}}</ref>
! Jeneng pandemi !! Wektu !!Pepati !! Tingkat pepati !! Subtipe sing duwé peran !! [[Tingkat Aboté Pandemi]]
|-
Ing [[babi]], influenza babi nimbulaké mriyang, awak lemes, wahing, watuk, kangèlan ambegan, lan pemudhunan nepsu mangan.<ref name=Kothalawala>{{cite journal |author=Kothalawala H, Toussaint MJ, Gruys E |title=An overview of swine influenza |journal=Vet Q |volume=28 |issue=2 |pages=46–53 |year=2006 |month=June |pmid=16841566}}</ref> Ing sebagéyan kasus infèksi bisa nimbulaké aborsi. Senajan mortalitas biyasané asor, virus bisa nimbulaké pamudhunan bobot awak lan patuwuhan sing ala, nimbulaké dampak karugèn ékonomi kanggo para paternak.<ref name=Kothalawala/> Babi sing kainfèksi bisa ngalami kélangan bobot watara 12 pon bobot awak jroning jangka wektu 3 nganti 4 minggu.<ref name=Myers>{{cite journal |author=Myers KP, Olsen CW, Gray GC |title=Cases of swine influenza in humans: a review of the literature |journal=Clin. Infect. Dis. |volume=44 |issue=8 |pages=1084–8 |year=2007 |month=April |pmid=17366454 |pmc=1973337 |doi=10.1086/512813 }}</ref>
 
Nalika taun 2009, galur virus [[H1N1]] sing asalé saka babi, sing asring diarani minangka “flu babi” nyebabaké pandemi flu 2009, nanging ora ana bukti yèn virus iki èndemik ing babi (temenan arupa flu babi) utawa bisa nular saka babi menyang manungsa, nanging virus iki nyebar saka manungsa-marang-manungsa.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oie.int/eng/press/en_090427.htm|title=Press Release: A/H1N1 influenza like human illness in Mexico and the USA: OIE statement|author=Maria Zampaglione |publisher=[[World Organisation for Animal Health]] |date=April 29, 2009 |accessdate=April 29, 2009|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/20090430105521/www.oie.int/eng/press/en_090427.htm|archivedate=April 30, 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/01/health/01name.html?scp=5&sq=&st=nyt |title=W.H.O. Gives Swine Flu a Less Loaded, More Scientific Name | work=The New York Times | first=Denise | last=Grady | date=2009-05-01 | accessdate=2010-03-31}}</ref> Galur iki arupa réassortment saka sapérangan galur H1N1 sing biyasané ditemokaké sacara kapisah, ing manungsa, unggas, lan babi.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/01/health/01origin.html?scp=2&sq=&st=nyt |title=Virus's Tangled Genes Straddle Continents, Raising a Mystery About Its Origins |format=| work=The New York Times | first=Donald G. | last=McNeil Jr. | date=2009-05-01 | accessdate=2010-03-31}}</ref>
 
== Cathetan sikil ==
{{Refbegin}}
* {{cite journal |author=Palese P |title=Making better influenza virus vaccines? |journal=Emerging Infect. Dis. |volume=12 |issue=1 |pages=61–5 |year=2006 |month=January |pmid=16494719 |url=http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no01/05-1043.htm}}
* [http://web.archive.org/20060824004040/www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/guidelines/recommendationvaccine.pdf WHO (PDF) contains latest Evolutionary "Tree of Life" for H5N1] article ''Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre-pandemic vaccines'' published 18 August 2006
* [http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3C.pdf WHO's assessment of Flu Research] as of November 2006.
{{Refend}}
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