Bari: Béda antara owahan

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'''Bari''' kuwi sawijining comune ing [[provinsi]] Bari, region [[Apulia]] (utawa, ing [[basa Italia]], ''Puglia''), ing pinggir [[Segara Adriatik]], ing [[Italia]]. Tlatah iki minangka pusat ekonomiékonomi kaloro ing wewengkon Italia kidul, lan misuwur kanthi pelabuhané lan minangka kutha universitas, lan kutha [[Saint Nicholas|Saint Nicholas saka Bari]]. Pedunungé 328,458 ana ing tlatah kang jembaré 116  km², déné pedunung kang ana ing kutha ana 653,028 ing tlatah kang jembaré luwih saka 203  km² (Cacahé nambah kanthi cepet). Watara 500,000 pedunung manggon ana ing tlatah metropolitan.
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Bari consists of four different parts. On the north, the closely built old town on the peninsula between two modern harbours, with the splendid Basilica of [[Saint Nicholas|San Nicola]] (Saint Nicholas), the Cathedral of San Sabino ([[1035]] - [[1171]]) and the ''Castello Svevo'' of Frederick II, is now also one of the major nightlife districts. The ''Murattiano'' section to the south, the modern heart of the city, is laid out on a rectangular plan with a promenade on the sea, and the major shopping district (the via Sparano and via Argiro). The more modern city surrounding this center was the result of chaotic development during the [[1960s]] and [[1970s]] over the old suburbs that had developed along roads splaying outwards from gates in the city walls. Finally, the outer suburbs have been in rapid development during the [[1990s]]. The city has a redeveloped airport named after Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyla Airport, with connections to many European destinations.
After the devastations of the [[Gothic Wars]], under [[Lombards|Lombard rule]] a set of written regulations was established, the ''Consuetudines Barenses'', which influenced similar written constitutions in other southern cities.
 
Bari was put on the political map of the region in [[852]] when it became a center of [[Arab]] power for a generation, under the emir [[Kahfun]] and latter under an emir whose name is unknown and then under [[Sawdan]] (see [[History of Islam in southern Italy]]). The city was reconquered by the [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantines]] in [[870]]. In [[885]], it became the residence of the local Byzantine ''[[catapan]]'', or governor. The failed revolt ([[1009]]-[[1011]]) of the Lombard nobles [[Melus of Bari]] and his brother-in-law Dattus, against the Byzantine governorate, though it was firmly repressed at the [[Battle of Cannae (1018)]], offered their Norman adventurer allies a first foothold in the region. In [[1025]], under the [[Byzantius, Archbishop of Bari|Archbishop Byzantius]], Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted provincial status.
 
In [[1071]], Bari was captured by [[Robert Guiscard]], following a [[Siege of Bari|three-year siege]]. [[Maio of Bari]] (d. [[1160]]), a Lombard merchant's son, was the third of the great admirals of Norman Sicily. The [[Basilica di San Nicola (Bari)|Basilica di San Nicola]] was founded in [[1087]] to receive the relics of this saint, which were surreptitiously brought from [[Myra]] in [[Lycia]], in Byzantine territory. The saint began his development from Saint Nicolas of Myra into [[Saint Nicholas|Saint Nicolas of Bari]] and began to attract pilgrims, whose encouragement and care became central to the economy of Bari. In [[1095]] [[Peter the Hermit]] preached the [[first crusade]] there. In October [[1098]], [[Urban II]], who had consecrated the Basilica in [[1089]], convened the '''Council of Bari''', one of a series of synods convoked with the intention of reconciling the Greeks and Latins on the question of the [[filioque]] clause in the Creed, which [[Anselm of Canterbury|Anselm]] ably defended, seated at the pope's side. The Greeks were not brought over to the Latin way of thinking, and the [[Great Schism]] was inevitable.
 
A [[civil war]] broke out in Bari in [[1117]] with the murder of the archbishop, Riso. Control of Bari was seized by [[Grimoald Alferanites]], a native Lombard, and he was elected lord in opposition to the Normans. By [[1123]], he had increased ties with [[Byzantium]] and [[Venice]] and taken the title ''gratia Dei et beati Nikolai barensis princeps''. Grimoald increased the cult of St Nicholas in his city. He later did homage to [[Roger II of Sicily]], but rebelled and was defeated in [[1132]].
 
In [[1156]], Bari was sacked and razed to the ground; [[Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor]] and King of Sicily, repaired the fortress of Baris but it was subsequently destroyed several times. Bari recovered each time.
 
==Early modern Bari==
[[Isabella of Naples|Isabella di Aragona]], princess of Naples and widow of the Duke of Milan [[Gian Galeazzo Sforza]], enlarged the castle, which she made her residence, [[1499]]-[[1524]]. After the death of [[Bona Sforza]], Queen of Poland, Bari came to be included in the [[Kingdom of Naples]] and its history contracted to a local one, as [[malaria]] became endemic in the region. Bari was wakened from its provincial somnolence by Napoleon's brother-in-law [[Joachim Murat]]. As Napoleonic King of Naples Murat ordered the building in [[1808]] of a new section of the city, laid out on a rational grid plan, which bears his name today as the ''Murattiano''. Under this stimulus, Bari developed into the most important port city of the region. The legacy of [[Benito Mussolini|Mussolini]] can be seen in the imposing architecture along the seafront.
 
====The 1943 chemical warfare disaster====
Through a tragic coincidence intended by neither of the opposing sides in [[World War II]], Bari gained the unwelcome distinction of being the only European city to experience [[chemical warfare]] in the course of that war.
 
On the night of [[December 2]], [[1943]], German [[Junkers Ju 88]] bombers attacked the port of Bari, which was a key supply center for [[Allies of World War II|Allied]] forces fighting their way up the Italian peninsula. Several Allied ships were sunk in the overcrowded harbor, including ''[[John Harvey (ship)|John Harvey]]'', which was carrying [[mustard gas]], mustard gas was also reported to have been stacked on the quayside awaiting transport. The chemical agent was intended for use if German forces initiated chemical warfare. The presence of the gas was highly classified, and authorities ashore had no knowledge of it. This increased the number of fatalities, since physicians — who had no idea that they were dealing with the effects of mustard gas — prescribed treatment proper for those suffering from exposure and immersion, which proved fatal in many cases. Because rescuers were unaware they were dealing with gas casualties many additional casulalties were caused among the rescuers by contact with the contaminated skin and clothing of those more directly exposed to the gas.
 
On the direct orders of Churchill records were destroyed and the whole affair was kept secret for many years after the war. Indeed, even today, many "Baresi" are still unaware of what happened and why. Up to the present, there is a considerable dispute as to the number of fatalities. In one account: "[s]ixty-nine deaths were attributed in whole or in part to the mustard gas, most of them American merchant seamen" [http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq104-4.htm]; others put it as high as "more than one thousand Allied servicemen and more than one thousand [Italian] civilians" [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1889901210]. Part of the confusion and controversy derives from the fact that the German attack, which became nicknamed "The Little Pearl Harbor", was highly destructive and lethal in itself, apart from the effects of the gas. Attribution of the causes of death to the gas, as distinct from the direct effects of the German attack, have proved far from easy.
 
The affair is the subject of two books: ''Disaster at Bari'' by [[Glenn B. Infield]] and ''Nightmare in Bari: The World War II Liberty Ship Poison Gas Disaster and Coverup'' by [[Gerald Reminick]].
===Basilica di San Nicola===
The ''[[Basilica di San Nicola (Bari)|Basilica di San Nicola]]'' (Saint Nicholas) was founded in [[1087]] to receive the relics of this saint, which were brought from [[Myra]] in [[Lycia]], and now lie beneath the [[altar]] in the [[crypt]], where are buried the Topins, which are a legacy of old thieves converted to good faith. The church is one of the four Palatine churches of Apulia (the others being the [[cathedral]]s of [[Acquaviva delle Fonti]] and [[Altamura#Main sights|Altamura]], and the church of [[Monte Sant'Angelo]] sul Gargano.
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===Cathedral of St. Sabinus===
The church of St. Sabinus (the current [[Duomo]] of the city) was begun in Byzantine style in [[1034]], but was destroyed in the sack of the city of [[1156]]. A new building was thus built between [[1170]]-[[1178]], partially inspired by that of San Nicola. Of the original edifice, only traces of the pavement are today visible in the transept.
 
An important example of Apulian [[Romanesque architecture]], the church has a simple [[Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]] façade with three portals; in the upper part is a rose window decorated with monstruous and fantasy figures. The interior has a nave and two aisles, divided by sixteen columns with arcades. The crypt houses the relics of St. Sabinus and the icon of the ''Madonna Odigitria''.
 
The interior and the façade were redecorated in Baroque style during the 18th century, but these additions were deleted in the 1950s restoration.
 
===Petruzzelli Theatre===
Fire-bombed in the early 1990s, the Petruzzelli theatre had been one of the grandest opera houses in Italy after [[La Scala]] in Milan and the [[San Carlo Theatre]] in Naples. Host to many famous opera and ballet greats throughout the last century, the shell of the Petruzzelli in Corso Cavour is subject to an ongoing restructuing project. Although seemingly slow, the theatre should re-open its doors before 2010.
 
===Castello Normanno Svevo===
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