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Basa Kurdhi (کوردی, Kurdî) ya iku siji kontinum saka basa Irania Lor-Kulon kang dituturaké déning wong-wong Kurdhi ing Asia Kulon. Basa Kurdhi nduwé dhialèk cacah telu, ya iku basa Kurdhi Lor (Kurmanji), basa Kurdhi Tengah (Sorani), lan basa Kurdhi Kidul (Pehlewani). Ana siji golongan basa aran Zaza-Gorani kang uga dituturake déning sawatara wong Kurdhi, nanging miturut ngèlmu linguistik ora kalebu basa Kurdhi.[3][4][5][6] Kang anyar dhéwé (wiwit taun 2009), panaliti miyak yèn cacahé panutur asli basa Kurdhi watara 20-30 yuta.[7] Pérangan gedhéning wong Kurdhi nganggo Kurmanji yèn celathon.[8][9]

Basa Kurdhi
Kurdî / کوردی
Kurdish Language.png
AsalTurki, Irak, Iran, Suriah, Arménia, Azerbaijan, Géorgia
LaladanKurdistan, Anatolia, Khorasan
ÈtnisWong Kurdhi
Panyatur asli
C. 20–30 yuta (2000–2010 est.)[1]
Dhialèk
Basa Kurdhi Lor (Kurmanji)
Sing digunakaké:
Aksara Hawar (Latin script; akèh-akèhé digunakaké ana Turki lan Suriah)
Aksara Sorani
(Perso-Arabic script; akèh-akèhé digunakaké ana Irak lan Iran)
Not used:
Aksara Kiril (biyèn Uni Soviyèt)
Kodhe basa
ISO 639-1ku
ISO 639-2kur
ISO 639-3kursandi inklusif
sandi tunggal:
ckb – Basa Kurdhi Tengah
kmr – Basa Kurdhi Lor
sdh – Basa Kurdhi Kidul
Glottologkurd1259[2]
Linguasphere58-AAA-a (North Kurdish incl. Kurmanji & Kurmanjiki) + 58-AAA-b (Central Kurdish incl. Dimli/Zaza & Gurani) + 58-AAA-c (South Kurdish incl. Kurdi)

Karya-karya sastra basa Kurdhi akèh-akèhé wujud geguritan nganti kawiwitan abad 20 nalika karya-karya sastra liyané wiwit ngrembaka. Sapréné, ana rong dhialèk basa Kurdhi tulisan kang baku, ya iku Kurmanji ing pérangan lor wewengkon Kurdhistan, lan Sorani ing pérangan wétan lan kidul. Basa Kurdhi Sorani, minangka salah siji basa resmi ing Irak bebarengan karo basa Arab, ing layang pulitik mung kaaran basa Kurdhi[10][11]

RéferènsiBesut

  1. Only very rough estimates are possible. SIL Ethnologue gives estimates, broken down by dialect group, totalling 31 million, but with the caveat of "Very provisional figures for Northern Kurdish speaker population". Ethnologue estimates for dialect groups: Northern: 20.2M (undated; 15M in Turkey for 2009), Central: 6.75M (2009), Southern: 3M (2000), Laki: 1M (2000). The Swedish Nationalencyklopedin listed Kurdish in its "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), citing an estimate of 20.6 million native speakers.
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Basa Kurdhi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Jerman: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. Kaya, Mehmet.
  4. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/files/Dargin_-_Working_Paper_-_FINAL.pdf
  5. "Languages of the Middle East". Diarsip saka sing asli ing 18 January 2012. Dijupuk 23 December 2011. 
  6. A Modern History of the Kurds: Third Edition - David McDowall - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2004-05-14. Dijupuk 2012-12-18. 
  7. Demographic data is unreliable especially in Turkey, where the largest number of Kurds reside, as Turkey has not permitted gathering ethnic or linguistic census data since 1965; estimates of ethnic Kurds in Turkey range from 10% to 25%, or 8 to 20 million people.
  8. "Kurmanji". Dijupuk 24 February 2016. 
  9. "Kurmanji Kurdish" (PDF). Dijupuk 24 February 2016. 
  10. Allison, Christine.
  11. "Kurdish language issue and a divisive approach - Kurdish Academy of Language".