Patang laras (Cina Tengahan)

Patang laras kang ana ing guguritan lan carabasawidya Cina (Aksara Kan: 四聲; pinyin: sìshēng) yaiku patang kêlas laras tradhisiyonal tetembungan Cina. Patang laras iki duwe guna kang penting ing guguritan Cina lan ing pasinau bandhingan kanggo parijinis-parijinis basa Cina ing basawidya Cina tradhisiyonal utawa Kulonan. Laras-laras iki silihsaur karo swarawidya basa Cina Tengahan lan karanan têtêg (平), munggah (上), mangkat (去), lan mlebu (入). Amarga pegat lan gathuking laras ing jaman biyen, ora ana parijinis basa Cina Modheren kang duwe ganep papat larasing basa Cina Tengahan. Ananging, laras-laras iku mau isih kawenehan tandha ing bausastra padhalagu.

Panjlentreh Laras ing Basa Cina ModherenBesut

Panjlentrehaning patang kelas laras ing basa Cina Modheren Saben kelas laras katandha angka urut ① nganti ⑧, miturut pangilone ing basa Cina Tengahan Pungkasan, katurutake karo carawacane nganggo aksara laras kanggo nggambarake konture lan banjur karo wujud angkane
Klumpukan utama bagakumpukan parijinis laladan Kelas laras basa Cina Tengahan Wiwitan gunggung kelas laras

(gunggung laras fonemis)

Teteg ꜀①꜁② Munggah ꜂③꜃④ Mangkat ⑤꜄⑥꜅ Mlebu ⑦꜆⑧꜇
Wanda onset
agosa sagosa agosa sagosa agosa sagosa agosa sagosa
son obs son obs tenuis asp son obs (cendhak) (dawa) son obs
Tuladhajupuk:
Mandharin Peycing Peycing ① ˥ 55 ②ʰ ˧˥ 35 ③ ˨˩˦ 214 ⑤˥˩ 51 (any)§ 4
Ji–Lu Jinan ① ˨˩˧ 213 ②ʰ ˦˨ 42 ③ ˥ 55 ⑤ ˨˩ 21 4
Jiao–Liao Dalian ②ʰ 4
Zhongyuan(Central Plain) Syi'an ① ˧˩ 31 ②ʰ ˨˦ 24 ③ ˦˨ 42 ⑤ ˥ 55 4
Dungan ① ˨˦ 24 ③ ˥˩ 51 ⑤ ˦ 44 3
Lan–Yin Lanzhou ① ˧˩ 31 ②ʰ ˥˧ 53 ③ ˦˦˨ 442 ⑤ ˩˧ 13 4
Yinchuan 3
Kidulkulon Chengdu ① ˥ 5 ②ʰ ˨˩ 21 ③ ˦˨ 42 ⑤ ˨˩˧ 213 4
Luzhou ① ˥ 5 ②ʰ ˨˩ 21 ③ ˦˨ 42 ⑤ ˩˧ 13 ⑦ˀ ˧ 3 5
Jiang–Huai Nanjing ① ˧˩ 31 ②ʰ ˩˧ 13 ③ ˨˩˨ 212 ⑤ ˦ 44 ⑦ˀ ˥ 5 5 (4)
Nantong ① 35 ②ʰ 21 ③ 55 ⑤ 213 ⑥ 42 ⑦ˀ 55ʔ ⑧ˀ 42ʔ 7 (5)
Jin Bingzhou Taiyuan ① ˩ 11 ③ ˥˧ 53 ⑤ ˦˥ 45 ⑦ˀ ˨ 2 ⑧ˀ ˥˦54 5 (3)
Ngu Taihu Shanghay ① ˥˨ 52 ⑥° ⑥° ⑤ ˧˧˦ 334 ⑥° ˩˩˧113 ⑦ˀ ˥ 5 ⑧ˀ° ˨˧ 23 5 (2)°
Su-tsêy ① ˦ 44 ②° ˨˦ 24 ③ ˥˨ 52 ⑥° ⑤ ˦˩˨ 412 ⑥° ˧˩ 31 ⑦ˀ ˦ 4 ⑧ˀ° ˨˧ 23 7 (3)°
Oujiang Wenzhounese ① ˦ 44 ②° ˧˩ 31 ③ʔ/④ʔ° ˧˥ 35 ⑤ ˥˨ 52 ⑥° ˨ 22 ⑦/⑧° ˧˨˧ 323 8 (4–6)°
Huizhou Ji-She Jixi ① ˧˩ 31 ② ˦ 44 ③ ˨˩˧ 213 ⑤ ˧˥ 35 ⑥ ˨ 22 ⑦ˀ ˧˨ 32 6 (5)
Syong New Changsha ① ˧ 33 ② ˩˧ 13 ③ ˦˩ 41 ⑤ ˥ 55 ⑥ ˨˩ 21 ⑦ˀ ˨˦ 24 6 (5)
Kon Changjing Nanchang ① ˦˨ 42 ②˨˦24 ③ ˨˩˧ 213 ⑤ ˥55 ⑥ ˨˩ 21 ⑦ˀ ˥ 5 ⑧ˀ ˨˩ 21 7 (5)
Hagkah Meizhou Meixian ① ˦ 44 ② ˩ 11 ③ ˧˩ 31 ⑤ ˥˨ 52 ⑦ˀ ˨˩ 21 ⑧ˀ ˦ 4 6 (4)
Yüt Yuehai Guangzhou ①a ˥ 55 ~①b ˥˧ 53 ②ʰ ˨˩21~11 ③ ˧˥ 35 ④ʰ* ˩˧ 13 ⑤ ˧ 33 ⑥ ˨ 22 ⑦aˀ ˥5 ⑦bˀ ˧3 ⑧ˀ ˨ 2 9~10 (6~7)
Hong Kong ① ˥ 55 ②ʰ ˨˩21~11 ③‖ ˨˥ 25 ④ʰ*‖ ˨˧ 23 ⑤ ˧ 33 ⑥ ˨ 22 ⑦aˀ ˥5 ⑦bˀ ˧3 ⑧ˀ ˨ 2 9 (6)
Shiqi ① ˥ 55 ② ˥˩ 51 ③ ˩˧ 13 ⑤ ˨ 22 ⑦aˀ ˥5 ⑧ˀ ˨ 2 6 (4)
Siyi Taishanese ① ˧ 33 ②ʰ? ˩ 11 ③ ˥ 55 ④ʰ? ˨˩ 21 ⑥ ˧˨ 32 ⑦aˀ ˥5 ⑦bˀ ˧3 ⑧ˀ ˨˩ 21 8 (5)
Gou-Lou Bobai ① ˦ 44 ②ʰ? ˨˧ 23 ③ ˧ 33 ④ʰ? ˦˥ 45 ⑤ ˧˨ 32 ⑥ ˨˩ 21 ⑦aˀ ˥˦54 ⑦bˀ ˩1 ⑧aˀ˦ 4

(long)

⑧bˀ˧˨ 32

(short)

10 (6)
Pinghua Southern Nanning ① ˥˨ 52 ②ʰ? ˨˩ 21 ③ ˦ 44 ④ʰ? ˨˦ 24 ⑤ ˥ 55 ⑥ ˨ 22 ⑦ˀ ˦ 4 ⑧aˀ˨˦ 24 ⑧bˀ ˨2 9 (6)
Ban Lor Jian'ou ① ˥˦ 54 ③ ˨˩ 21 ⑤ ˨ 22 ⑥ ˦ 44 ⑦ˀ ˨˦ 24 ⑧ˀ ˦˨ 42 6 (4)
Wetan Fuzhou ① ˥ 55 ② ˥˧ 53 ③ ˧ 33 ⑤ ˨˩˧ 213 ⑥ ˨˦˨ 242 ⑦ˀ ˨˦ 24 ⑧ˀ ˥ 5 7 (5)
Kidul Amoy ① ˥ 55 ② ˧˥ 35 ③ ˥˧ 53 ③/⑥† ⑤ ˨˩ 21 ⑥ ˧ 33 ⑦ˀ ˩ 1 ⑧ˀ ˥ 5 7 (5)
Cwancyu ① ˧ 33 ② ˨˦ 24 ③ ˥ 55 ③/④† ④ ˨22 ⑤‡ ˦˩ 41 ⑥‡ ˦˩ 41 ⑦ˀ ˥ 5 ⑧ˀ ˨˦ 24 8 (6)
Teochew ① ˧ 33 ② ˥ 55 ③ ˥˨ 52 ④ ˧˥ 35 ⑤ ˨˩˧ 213 ⑥ ˩11 ④/⑥ǃ ⑦ˀ ˨ 2 ⑧ˀ ˦ 4 8 (6)
Cina Vyetnam Lor Hanoi ① ˦ 44 ②˧˨32 ③ ˧˩˨ 312 ④˧˨˥325 ④/⑥ ⑤ ˧˦ 34 ⑥ ˨ 22 ⑦ ˦˥ 45 ⑧ ˨˩ 21 8 (6)
Central Hue ① ˥˦˥ 545 ②˦˩41 ③ ˧˨ 32 ③/⑥ ⑤ ˨˩˦ 214 ⑥ ˧˩ 31 ⑦ ˦˧˥ 435 ⑧ ˧˩ 31 7 (5)
Kidul Saigon ① ˦ 44 ②˧˩31 ③ ˨˩˦ 214 ③/⑥ ⑤ ˧˥ 35 ⑥ ˨˩˨ 212 ⑦ ˦˥ 45 ⑧ ˨˩ 21 7 (5)
§ Irregular developmen

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Basa Cina