"Ras Kaukasoid"[1] tau kanggo nuduhake fenotipe umum saka akèh-akèhé penghuni Éropah, Afrika Utara, Timur Tengah, Pakistan lan India Utara.[2] Keturunanne uga netep ing Australia, Amérika Utara, separo manèh saka Amérika Selatan, Afrika Selatan, lan Selandia Baru. Anggota "ras Kaukasoid" padhatan sinebut "kulit putih", sanajan mau ora mesti bener. Déning sapérangan nimpuna tuladhané wong Ethiopia lan wong Somalia, kang tengkorake memper tengkorak Kaukasoid, dianggep kalebu "ras" mau, sanajan rambute brintik lan kulike ireng, ciri kang dianggep nemtokake "ras Negroid".

Pakar genetika asal Itali Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza wis mbuktekake yèn bagi manungsa ing sajeroning ras minangka sawijining usaha kang siya-siya. Mulane saka segi biologi, istilah kaya ta "ras Kaukasoid" lan racaké, "ras manungsa", ora dianggep manèh. Fenotipe sawijining wong ditemtokake déning mung sapérangan gen. Kanthi biologis, mung ana siji ras manungsa, ya iku Homo sapiens sapiens.

CathetanBesut

  1. For a contrast with the "Mongolic" or Mongoloid race, see footnote #4 of page 58–59 in Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2.
  2. The Races of Europe by Carlton Stevens Coon. From Chapter XI: The Mediterranean World - Introduction: "This third racial zone stretches from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence along the southern Mediterranean shores into Arabia, East Africa, Mesopotamia, and the Persian highlands; and across Afghanistan into India."

Uga delengenBesut

RéferènsiBesut

  • Leroi, Armand Marie (2005-03-14). "A Family Tree in Every Gene". The New York Times. p. A23.
  • Lewonin, R. C. (2005). "Confusions About Human Races". Race and Genomics, Social Sciences Research Council. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  • Painter, Nell Irvin (2003). "Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race. Why White People are Called Caucasian" (PDF). Yale University. Retrieved 2006-10-09. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Risch N, Burchard E, Ziv E, Tang H (July 2002). "Categorization of humans in biomedical research: genes, race and disease". Genome Biol. 3 (7): comment2007.2001–12. doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-7-comment2007. PMC 139378. PMID 12184798.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Rosenberg NA; Pritchard JK; Weber JL; et al. (December 2002). "Genetic structure of human populations". Science. 298 (5602): 2381–5. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.2381R. doi:10.1126/science.1078311. PMID 12493913. Unknown parameter |author-separator= ignored (help)
  • Rosenberg NA, Mahajan S, Ramachandran S, Zhao C, Pritchard JK, Feldman MW (December 2005). "Clines, Clusters, and the Effect of Study Design on the Inference of Human Population Structure". PLoS Genet. 1 (6): e70. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0010070. PMC 1310579. PMID 16355252.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Templeton, Alan R. (September 1998). "Human races: A genetic and evolutionary perspective". American Anthropologist. 100 (3): 632–650. doi:10.1525/aa.1998.100.3.632. JSTOR 682042.
  • Camberg, Kim (2005-12-13). "Long-term tensions behind Sydney riots". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-03-03.

LiteraturBesut

  • Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, On the Natural Varieties of Mankind (1775) — the book that introduced the concept
  • Gould, Stephen Jay (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-01489-4. — a history of the pseudoscience of race, skull measurements, and IQ inheritability
  • Piazza, Alberto; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Menozzi, Paolo (1996). The history and geography of human genes. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02905-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) — a major reference of modern population genetics
  • Cavalli-Sforza, LL (2000). Genes, peoples and languages. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9486-X.
  • Augstein, HF (1999). "From the Land of the Bible to the Caucasus and Beyond". In Harris, Bernard; Ernst, Waltraud (ed.). Race, science and medicine, 1700–1960. New York: Routledge. pp. 58–79. ISBN 0-415-18152-6.CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Baum, Bruce (2006). The rise and fall of the Caucasian race: a political history of racial identity. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-9892-6.
  • Guthrie, Paul (1999). The Making of the Whiteman: From the Original Man to the Whiteman. Chicago, IL: Research Associates School Times. ISBN 0-948390-49-2.
  • Wolf, Eric R.; Cole, John N. (1999). The Hidden Frontier: Ecology and Ethnicity in an Alpine Valley. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21681-4.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Pranala njabaBesut

Cithakan:Rasmanusia


Cithakan:Manungsa-stub