Za'atar

Za'atar [1] ( Arab: زَعْتَر‎‎ , IPA: [ˈzaʕtar] ) minangka ramuan kuliner utawa kulawarga jamu. Iki uga minangka jeneng campuran rempah - rempah sing kalebu ramuan karo wiji wijen panggang, sumac garing, asring uyah, uga rempah - rempah liyane. [2] Minangka kulawarga herbal saka Timur Tengah sing ana gandhengane, ngemot tanduran saka genera Origanum ( oregano ), Calamintha ( basil thyme ), Tymus ( umume tanduran Thymus vulgaris, yaiku thyme ), lan tanduran Satureja ( gurih ). [3] Jeneng za'atar piyambak paling mlaku ditrapake kanggo Origanum syriacum, dianggep ing beasiswa Alkitab dadi hyssop ( basa Ibrani: אזוב‎  [eˈzov] ) saka Alkitab Ibrani . [4] Digunakake ing masakan Levantine, campuran ramuan herbal lan rempah-rempah iki misuwur ing saindenging wilayah Mediterania ing Timur Tengah . [5] [6]

Gambar nutup za'atar, campuran hisop, sumac, wijen lan uyah
Origanum syriacum, nalika musim semi
Za'atar thukul ing Yerusalem

SejarahBesut

Ing tradhisi Yahudi, Saadiah (d. 942), Ibn Ezra (d. Sekitar taun 1164), Maimonides (1135-1204) lan Obadiah ben Abraham (1465–1515) ngenali ezov sing kasebut ing Alkitab Ibrani ( Ibrani : אזוב, Ibrani Samaria : ࠀࠉࠆࠅࠁ) kanthi tembung Arab "za'atar". [7] Ezov / za'atar khusus digandhengake karo upacara kemurnian ritual, kayata nyiyapake awu saka sapi abang (Nomer 19: 6) lan nangani kontaminasi awak (Imamat 14: 4, 6, 51-52; Nomer 20:18). Bani Israel uga dikatutake nggunakake gumpalan ezov / za'atar gagang kanggo nutupi getih korban Paschal ing tiang lawang omah sadurunge ninggalake budak ing Mesir (Pangentasan 12:22). Raja Daud nyebut kekuwatan sing ngresiki ramuan ing Jabur 51: 7, "Ngresiki aku nganggo ezov / za'atar lan aku bakal diresiki." Suwe-suwe mengko, ezov / za'atar katon ing abad kaping 2 Mishnah minangka bahan panganan nalika semana ing Yudea ('Uktzin 2: 2), dene ing papan liya ing Talmud ana nyebutake ramuan herbal sing dadi minyak (persiyapan diarani mish'cha t'china ing basa Aram, basa Arab), nanging ora ditemtokake manawa iki kaya campuran za'atar sing dingerteni saiki. Ing abad kaping 12, Maimonides nggambarake panggunaan za'atar (צצתרר, heع identified he he he identified) sing dikenal ing masakan kontemporer, kanthi nyathet manawa " ezov sing disebutake ing Torah yaiku ezov sing dipangan para pamilik omah lan ngombe panganan." ( Mishneh Torah, Parah Adumah 3: 2) Bebarengan karo uyah sing dibumbui liyane, za'atar digunakake minangka panganan utama masakan Arab wiwit jaman pertengahan nganti saiki.

[8] [9]

 
Za'atar manakeesh

ReferensiBesut

  1. Also romanized zaatar, za'tar, zatar. Origanum Syriacum. Bible Hyssop Cara Inggris pangucapan: /ˈzɑːtɑːr/
  2. Aliza Green. "Za'atar". CHOW. Dibukak ing 2008-03-09.
  3. Allen, 2007, p. 237.
  4. Based on the Judeo-Arabic translation of the word in the works of Rabbi Saadia Gaon (in his Tafsir, a translation of the Pentateuch, Exo. 12:22); Al-Fasi, D. (1936), vol. 1, s.v. אזוב; Ibn Ǧanāḥ, Yonah (1896), s.v. אזב - aleph, zayn, bet; Maimonides (1967), s.v. Nega'im 14:6; and Nathan ben Abraham I (1955), s.v. Uktzin 2:2. The problems with identification arise from Jewish oral tradition where it expressly prohibits Greek hyssop, and where the biblical plant is said to have been identical to the Arabic word, zaatar (Origanum syriacum), and which word is not to be associated with other ezobs that often bear an additional epithet, such as zaatar farsi = Persian-hyssop (Thymbra capitata) and zaatar rumi = Roman-hyssop (Satureja thymbra). See: The Mishnah (ed. Herbert Danby), Oxford University Press: Oxford 1977, s.v. Negai'im 14:6 (p. 696); Parah 11:7 [10:7] (p. 711).
  5. Rozanne Gold (July 20, 1994). "A Region's Tastes Commingle in Israel". The New York Times. Dibukak ing September 4, 2014.
  6. Florence Fabricant (October 28, 1992). "Food Notes". The New York Times. Dibukak ing September 4, 2014.
  7. Isser, 1976, p. 99.
  8. Basan, 2007, p. 27.
  9. Dorothea Bedigian (September 2004). "History and Lore of Sesame in Southwest Asia". Economic Botany. 58 (3): 330–353. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2004)058[0330:HALOSI]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0013-0001.