Obat-obatan

Obat yaiku zat sing nyebabake owah-owahan fisiologi utawa psikologi organisme nalika dikonsumsi. [1] [2] Obat biasane dibedakake karo panganan lan zat sing nyedhiyakake dhukungan nutrisi. Konsumsi obat bisa liwat inhalasi, injeksi, ngrokok, asupan, nyerep liwat tambalan ing kulit, supositoria, utawa pembubaran ing ngisor ilat .

aspirin tablet, dumadi saka 90% asam asetilsalisilat, bebarengan karo jumlah suntingan saka pangisi inert lan Binders. Aspirin minangka obat farmasi sing asring digunakake kanggo ngobati rasa sakit, demam, lan pembengkakan .

Ing farmakologi, obat minangka zat kimia, biasane saka struktur sing dingerteni, sing nalika diwenehake menyang organisme sing urip, ngasilake efek biologis. [3] Obat farmasi, uga diarani obat utawa obat, minangka zat kimia sing digunakake kanggo ngobati, ngobati, nyegah, utawa diagnosa penyakit utawa kanggo ningkatake kesejahteraan . [1] Obat tradisional dipikolehi liwat ekstraksi saka tanduran obat, nanging paling anyar uga kanthi sintesis organik . [4] Obat-obatan farmasi bisa digunakake kanggo wektu sing winates, utawa kanthi rutin kanggo kelainan kronis . [5]

Obat farmasi asring diklasifikasikaké dadi kelas tamba -groups obatan ingkang duwe padha struktur kimia, padha mekanisme aksi (nglunturke padha target biologi ), a related mode saka tumindak, lan sing digunakake kanggo nambani penyakit sing padha. [6] [7] Sistem Klasifikasi Kimia Terapeutik Anatomi (ATC), sistem klasifikasi obat sing paling akeh digunakake, menehi obat kode ATC unik, yaiku kode alphanumerik sing menehi kelas obat tartamtu ing sistem ATC. Sistem klasifikasi utama liyane yaiku Sistem Klasifikasi Biofarmasiutika . Iki nggolongake obat miturut kelarutan lan permeabilitas utawa sifat nyerep. [8]

Obat psikoaktif minangka zat kimia sing mengaruhi fungsi sistem saraf pusat, ngowahi persepsi, swasana ati utawa eling . [9] Obat-obatan kasebut dipérang dadi macem-macem klompok kayata: stimulan, depresi, antidepresan, anxiolytic, antipsikotik, lan hallucinogen . Obat psikoaktif kasebut wis kabukten migunani kanggo ngobati macem-macem kahanan medis kalebu kelainan mental ing saindenging jagad. Obat-obatan sing paling akeh digunakake ing jagad iki kalebu kafein, nikotin lan alkohol, [10] sing uga dianggep obat-obatan rekreasi, amarga obat kasebut digunakake kanggo kesenengan tinimbang tujuan obat. [11] Kabeh obat bisa duwe efek samping . Penyalahgunaan sawetara obat psikoaktif bisa nyebabake kecanduan psikologis utawa fisik. [12] Panggunaan stimulan sing akeh banget bisa ningkatake psikosis stimulan . Akeh obat-obatan rekreasi sing dilarang lan perjanjian internasional kayata Konvensi Tunggal babagan Narkotika Narkotika sing ana larangane .

Nexium (Esomeprazole) minangka penghambat pompa proton . Iki digunakake kanggo nyuda produksi asam lambung.
Ganja minangka obat rekreasi sing umume digunakake. [13]

ReferensiBesut

 

  1. a b . v 1.1. Random House. 20 September 2007 https://web.archive.org/web/20070914072701/http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/drug. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 14 September 2007. Missing or empty |title= (pitulung) Masalah sitiran: Tenger <ref> ora trep; jeneng "diccom" diwedharaké ping bola-bali déné isiné béda
  2. "Drug Definition". Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2014-05-02. Dibukak ing 2014-05-01.
  3. H.P., Rang; M.M, Dale; J.M., Ritter; R.J., Flower; G., Henderson (2011). "What is Pharmacology". Rang & Dale's pharmacology (7th ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7020-3471-8. a drug can be defined as a chemical substance of known structure, other than a nutrient of an essential dietary ingredient, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect
  4. "Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review". Biotechnol Adv. 33 (8): 1582–614. December 2015. doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2015.08.001. PMC 4748402. PMID 26281720.
  5. The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company https://web.archive.org/web/20070914072701/http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/drug. Diarsip saka sing asli ing 14 September 2007. Dibukak ing 20 September 2007. Missing or empty |title= (pitulung)
  6. "Comparing drug classification systems". AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings: 1039. 6 November 2008. PMID 18999016.
  7. World Health Organization (2003). Introduction to drug utilization research (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. 33. ISBN 978-92-4-156234-8. Diarsip saka sing asli (PDF) ing 2016-01-22.
  8. Bergström, CA; Andersson, SB; Fagerberg, JH; Ragnarsson, G; Lindahl, A (16 June 2014). "Is the full potential of the biopharmaceutics classification system reached?". European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57: 224–31. doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2013.09.010. PMID 24075971.
  9. "An overview of alcohol and other drug issues". Diarsip saka sing asli ing 2015-03-28. Dibukak ing 2015-03-16.
  10. Crocq MA (June 2003). "Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and mental disorders". Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 5 (2): 175–185. PMC 3181622. PMID 22033899.
  11. "Recreational Drug". The Free Dictionary. Dibukak ing 16 March 2015.
  12. Fox, Thomas Peter; Oliver, Govind; Ellis, Sophie Marie (2013). "The Destructive Capacity of Drug Abuse: An Overview Exploring the Harmful Potential of Drug Abuse Both to the Individual and to Society". ISRN Addiction. 2013: 450348. doi:10.1155/2013/450348. PMC 4392977. PMID 25938116.
  13. Lingeman. Drugs from A–Z: A Dictionary. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-7139-0136-8.